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  • 2005-2009  (4)
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  • 1
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37 . pp. 727-742.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: Output from an eddy-resolving model of the North Atlantic Ocean is used to estimate values for the thickness diffusivity κ appropriate to the Gent and McWilliams parameterization. The effect of different choices of rotational eddy fluxes on the estimated κ is discussed. Using the raw fluxes (no rotational flux removed), large negative values (exceeding −5000 m2 s−1) of κ are diagnosed locally, particularly in the Gulf Stream region and in the equatorial Atlantic. Removing a rotational flux based either on the suggestion of Marshall and Shutts or the more general theory of Medvedev and Greatbatch leads to a reduction of the negative values, but they are still present. The regions where κ 〈 0 correspond to regions where eddies are acting to increase, rather than decrease (as in baroclinic instability) the mean available potential energy. In the subtropical gyre, κ ranges between 500 and 2000 m2 s−1, rapidly decreasing to zero below the thermocline in all cases. Rotational fluxes and κ are also estimated using an optimization technique. In this case, |κ| can be reduced or increased by construction, but the regions where κ 〈 0 are still present and the optimized rotational fluxes also remain similar to a priori values given by the theoretical considerations. A previously neglected component (ν) of the bolus velocity is associated with the horizontal flux of buoyancy along, rather than across, the mean buoyancy contours. The ν component of the bolus velocity is interpreted as a streamfunction for eddy-induced advection, rather than diffusion, of mean isopycnal layer thickness, showing up when the lateral eddy fluxes cannot be described by isotropic diffusion only. All estimates show a similar large-scale pattern for ν, implying westward advection of isopycnal thickness over much of the subtropical gyre. Comparing ν with a mean streamfunction shows that it is about 10% of the mean in midlatitudes and even larger than the mean in the Tropics.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    AGU / Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 113 (C2).
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: A nested‐grid ocean circulation modeling system is used to study the response of Lunenburg Bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, to local wind‐forcing, tides, remotely generated waves, and buoyancy forcing in the summer and fall of 2003. Quantitative comparisons between observations and model results demonstrate that the modeling system reproduces reasonably well the observed sea level, temperature, salinity, and currents in the bay. Numerical results reveal that the spatial and temporal variability of temperature and salinity in the bay during the study period is mainly forced by the local wind stress and surface heat/freshwater fluxes, with some contribution from tidal circulation. In particular, the local heat balance on the monthly timescale is dominated by cooling due to vertical advection and warming due to horizontal advection and net surface heat flux, while high‐frequency variations (timescales of 1–30 days) are mainly associated with vertical advection, i.e., wind‐induced upwelling and downwelling. There is also a strong baroclinic throughflow over the deep water region outside Lunenburg Bay that is strongly influenced by wind‐forcing. The vertically integrated momentum balance analysis indicates a modified geostrophic balance on the monthly timescale and longer, and is dominated by the pressure term and wind minus bottom stress in the high‐frequency band.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Weather and Forecasting, 22 (3). pp. 480-500.
    Publication Date: 2013-09-04
    Description: On 19 October 2000, Hurricane Michael merged with an approaching baroclinic trough over the western North Atlantic Ocean south of Nova Scotia. As the hurricane moved over cooler sea surface temperatures (SSTs; less than 25°C), it intensified to category-2 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale [maximum sustained wind speeds of 44 m s−1 (85 kt)] while tapping energy from the baroclinic environment. The large “hybrid” storm made landfall on the south coast of Newfoundland with maximum sustained winds of 39 m s−1 (75 kt) causing moderate damage to coastal communities east of landfall. Hurricane Michael presented significant challenges to weather forecasters. The fundamental issue was determining which of two cyclones (a newly formed baroclinic low south of Nova Scotia or the hurricane) would become the dominant circulation center during the early stages of the extratropical transition (ET) process. Second, it was difficult to predict the intensity of the storm at landfall owing to competing factors: 1) decreasing SSTs conducive to weakening and 2) the approaching negatively tilted upper-level trough, favoring intensification. Numerical hindcast simulations using the limited-area Mesoscale Compressible Community model with synthetic vortex insertion (cyclone bogus) prior to the ET of Hurricane Michael led to a more realistic evolution of wind and pressure compared to running the model without vortex insertion. Specifically, the mesoscale model correctly simulates the hurricane as the dominant circulation center early in the transition process, versus the baroclinic low to its north, which was the favored development in the runs not employing vortex insertion. A suite of experiments is conducted to establish the sensitivity of the ET to various initial conditions, lateral driving fields, domain sizes, and model parameters. The resulting storm tracks and intensities fall within the range of the operational guidance, lending support to the possibility of improving numerical forecasts using synthetic vortex insertion prior to ET in such a model.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37 . pp. 1282-1296.
    Publication Date: 2019-07-03
    Description: A generalization of the transformed Eulerian and temporal residual means is presented. The new formulation uses rotational fluxes of buoyancy, and the full hierarchy of statistical density moments, to reduce the cross-isopycnal eddy flux to the physically relevant component associated with the averaged water mass properties. The resulting eddy-induced diapycnal diffusivity vanishes for adiabatic, statistically steady flow, and is related to either the growth or decay of mesoscale density variance and/or the covariance between small-scale forcing (mixing) and density fluctuations, such as that associated with the irreversible removal of density variance by dissipation. The relationship between the new formulation and previous approaches is described and is illustrated using results from an eddying channel model. The formalism is quite general and applies to all kinds of averaging and to any tracer (not just density).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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