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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Significant numbers of perch, Perca fluviatilis, raised on a pilot fish farm in Switzerland presented focal skin lesions on the lateral sides and fin rot. Mortality rates reached levels of up to 1% of the total fish on the farm per day. Virtually pure cultures of Aeromonas sobria were isolated from the liver, kidney, spleen and skin lesions of affected fish. Aeromonas sobria isolated from the farmed perch had a haemolytic effect on sheep and trout erythrocytes, autoaggregated, was cytotoxic for cultured fish cells and possessed genes involved in type III protein secretion. Experimental infection of naïve perch with a single colony isolate of A. sobria from an affected farm fish resulted in the development of clinical signs identical to those seen on the farm. The results indicate that A. sobria can act as a primary pathogen of perch.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag) causes bacterial pustule disease which can significantly reduce the production of soybean. A collection of 26 isolates of Xag from different soybean-production areas of Thailand was shown to differ with regard to aggressiveness on soybean. They also differed in their ability to induce a hypersensitive response (HR) on four cultivars of tobacco and on other plant species including pepper, tomato, cucumber, pea and sesame. Tomato was most sensitive to HR induction by Xag. Isolate KU-P-34017 caused an HR on all the plant species tested. The minimal concentration of KU-P-34017 needed to induce HR on tobacco was approximately 5 × 108 CFU mL−1. A bacterium–plant interaction period of at least 2·5 h was necessary for HR, and different temperatures, relative humidity and light periods did not affect HR development. Inhibitors of eukaryotic metabolism, including cobalt chloride, lanthanum chloride and sodium orthovanadate (completely), and cycloheximide (partially) blocked the HR on tobacco, indicating the association of an active plant response. In contrast, the HR on tomato was inhibited only by cobalt chloride.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1749-7345
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. The need for enhanced disease resistance, feed efficiency, and growth performance of cultured organisms is substantial for various sectors of this industry. If growth performance and feed efficiency are increased in commercial aquaculture, then the costs of production are likely to be reduced. Also if more fish are able to resist disease and survive until they are of marketable size, the subsequent cost of medication and overall production costs would be reduced drastically. It has been documented in a number of food animals that gastrointestinal microbiota play important roles in affecting the nutrition and health of the host organism. Thus, various means of altering the intestinal microbiota to achieve favorable effects such as enhancing growth, digestion, immunity, and disease resistance of the host organism have been investigated in various terrestrial livestock as well as in humans. Dietary supplementation of prebiotcs, which are classified as non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by stimulating growth and/or activity of a limited number of health-promoting bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacter spp. in the intestine, while limiting potentially pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli, have been reported to favorably affect various terrestrial species; however, such information is extremely limited to date for aquatic organisms. Effects of probiotics, defined as live microbial feed supplements, on gastrointestinal microbiota have been studied in some fishes, but the primary application of microbial manipulations in aquaculture has been to alter the composition of the aquatic medium. In general, the gastrointestinal microbiota of fishes including those produced in aquaculture has been poorly characterized, especially the anaerobic microbiota. Therefore, more detailed studies of the microbial community of cultured fish are needed to potentially enhance the effectiveness of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation. This review summarizes and evaluates current knowledge of intestinal microbial ecology of fishes, the various functions of this intestinal microbial community, and the potential for further application of prebiotics and probiotics in aquaculture.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2109
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with brewers yeast (Brewtech®) and nucleotides (Optimûn), either singularly or in combination, on red drum growth, body composition, stress responses and possible resistance to Amyloodinium ocellatum infection. Juvenile red drum (∼1 g initially) fed practical fish-meal-based diets for 6 weeks had similar weight gain regardless of whether the diet was unsupplemented (basal) or supplemented with brewers yeast (2% of diet), nucleotides (Optimûn at 0.2% of diet) or both brewers yeast (2% of diet) and nucleotides (Optimûn at 0.2% of diet). Dietary effects on hepatosomatic index, intraperitoneal fat ratio or whole-body composition were not significant, except that fish fed the singular nucleotide supplement had a significantly higher whole-body lipid content compared with fish fed the basal diet. No significant dietary effects on cortisol response were observed after a 15 min confinement stress test perhaps because of the extreme variation among individual fish. Subsequently, in situ challenge by co-habitation with A. ocellatum caused 100% mortality regardless of dietary treatment within a 48 h period. It is concluded that dietary supplementation of brewers yeast and nucleotides did not promote enhanced growth or improved cortisol response and resistance to uncontrolled amyloodiniosis in juvenile red drum, at least at the tested dosages.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: Are small (less than approx. 1 km diameter) craters on Mars and the Moon dominated by primary impacts, by secondary impacts of much larger primary craters, or are both primaries and secondaries significant? This question is critical to age constraints for young terrains and for older terrains covering small areas, where only small craters are superimposed on the unit. If the martian rayed crater Zunil is representative of large impact events on Mars, then the density of secondaries should exceed the density of primaries at diameters a factor of ~1000 smaller than that of the largest contributing primary crater. On the basis of morphology and depth/diameter measurements, most small craters on Mars could be secondaries. Two additional observations (discussed below) suggest that the production functions of Hartmann and Neukum predict too many primary craters smaller than a few hundred meters in diameter. Fewer small, high-velocity impacts may explain why there appears to be little impact regolith over Amazonian terrains. Martian terrains dated by small craters could be older than reported in recent publications.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 13; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-13
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: The Cassini Imaging Science System (ISS) has been returning images of Titan, along with other Saturnian satellites. Images taken through the 938 nm methane window see down to Titan's surface. One of the purposes of the Cassini mission is to investigate possible fluid cycling on Titan. Lemniscate features shown recently and radar evidence of surface flow prompted us to consider theoretically the creation by methane fluid flow of streamlined forms on Titan. This follows work by other groups in theoretical consideration of fluid motion on Titan's surface.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 2; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-2
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: Basaltic ring structures (BRSs) are enigmatic, quasi-circular landforms in eastern Washington State that were first recognized in 1965. They remained a subject of geologic scrutiny through the 1970 s and subsequently faded from the spotlight, but recent Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images showing morphologically similar structures in Athabasca Valles, Mars, have sparked renewed interest in BRSs. The only known BRSs occur in the Channeled Scabland, a region where catastrophic Pleistocene floods from glacial Lake Missoula eroded into the Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The geologic setting of the martian ring structures (MRSs) is similar; Athabasca Valles is a young channel system that formed when catastrophic aqueous floods carved into a volcanic substrate. This study investigates the formation of terrestrial BRSs and examines the extent to which they are appropriate analogs for the MRSs in Athabasca Valles.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 10; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-10
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2006. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Quaternary Science Reviews 25 (2006): 855-862, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.09.009.
    Description: A recently published radiocarbon calibration curve extending to 50,000 cal BP (Fairbanks et al. 2005) is purportedly superior to that generated by the IntCal working group beyond the end of the tree-ring data at 12,400 cal BP (Reimer et al. 2004). This claim is based, in part, on different diagenetic screening criteria and pretreatment for coral samples (Fairbanks et al. 2005; Chiu et al. 2005) which do not stand up under careful scrutiny. Also at issue is the conversion of the coral-based calibration curve to an atmospheric curve where large inter-annual variability in the sea-surface age reservoir age has been observed in the southwest Pacific where one of two sets of corals used were sampled. In addition we comment on the seemingly ad hoc statistical methods utilized by Fairbanks et al. (2005) to construct their curve. We recognize the value of the Fairbanks et al. (2005) coral radiocarbon data set, but reassert the need for multiple, independently derived data to provide confirmation and validation to all radiocarbon calibration data. This is especially important before 26,000 cal BP when lower sea-levels of the last glacial maximum exposed most coral samples to alteration by fresh water.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: 322728 bytes
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: GSFC.JA.5560.2011 , Planetary and Space Science; 57; 6-May; 579-596
    Format: text
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  • 10
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