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  • 1
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: This paper charts the complex dynamics of the movement of technical talent in the world economy and assesses broadly the impact of such mobility on both sending and receiving countries. Based on secondary data and primary information from the Indian and Japanese IT industry, the study presents a global view of the movement of talent and its development and policy implications. By synthesizing disparate data and the multifaceted processes and outcomes of international mobility, the paper examines some of the distributional issues of gains and losses in both sending and receiving countries.
    Keywords: F22 ; I28 ; J24 ; L86 ; ddc:330 ; international migration ; education ; government policy ; human capital ; skills ; information services ; computer software ; Internationale Arbeitsmobilität ; Humankapital ; Softwareindustrie ; Indien ; Japan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper studies the major determinants that affect the country choice of the talented Italian scientists and researchers who have at least a bachelor's from Italy and live abroad. There are three alternative country choices: the US/Canada, the UK, and other EU countries. On average, the brainy Italians exhibit a higher predicted probability to go to the US. Ceteris paribus, both push and pull factors are important. While having a Ph.D. from outside Italy predicts the UK choice, having extra working experience from outside Italy predicts migration to other EU countries. Those who stay abroad temporarily for two to four years are definitely more likely to go to the UK. Specialization in the fields of humanities, social sciences, and health are strong determinants of migration to the UK. For the move to the US, while the humanities area is a significant deterrent, health is a positive deciding factor. Lack of funds in Italy constitutes a significant push to the US.
    Keywords: J61 ; J24 ; F22 ; ddc:330 ; Brain drain ; skilled migration ; Italy ; push-pull factors ; Brain Drain ; Migrationstheorie ; Italien ; Einwanderung ; Italiener ; USA ; Großbritannien ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: This paper analyses how rising agricultural prices affect heterogenous farm production and access to inputs under credit market imperfections in the CEE transition countries. Using the FADN farm level panel data, which contains 37416 observations for 2004 and 2005, we estimate a farm credit constraint equation and find that small individual farms (IF) are more credit constrained that large corporate farms (CF). Using the estimated parameters we simulate the effect of rising input and output prices on production and input use of IF and CF farms. Our results suggest that in the presence of credit market imperfections, the relatively less credit constrained CF tend to benefit more from higher output prices than IF. Given that farms in transition and developing countries are more credit constrained than farms in developed market economies, raising food prices may actually reduce their profits and income compared to the latter. Hence, not only consumers but also agricultural producers in the developing world may loose from the increasing food prices.
    Keywords: Q11 ; Q12 ; P23 ; ddc:330 ; Credit constraint ; food prices ; firm level heterogeneity
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The present paper examines a long-run relationship between the energy, bioenergy and food prices. In the recent years the bioenergy production has increased significantly around the world. The increase has been driven by rising energy prices as well as by environmental policies aiming at reducing the harmful effects of conventional sources of energy, such as climate change. Bioenergy, in turn, affects agricultural markets, because it uses agricultural commodities as inputs. The theoretical model we develop predicts that, because of price inelastic food demand, the agricultural price increase may be substantial. The empirical findings confirm the theoretical hypothesis that energy prices do affect prices of agricultural commodities. However, the co-integration is weaker than theoretically predicted. The price effect of bioenergy might be mitigated by new technological development, which improve yields and lead to an offsetting effect in the supply of agricultural commodities, and by fallow land brought into cultivation, when agricultural profitability is rising.
    Keywords: Q11 ; Q13 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; Energy ; bioenergy ; crude oil ; prices ; cointegration
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: This study investigates the impact of the SAPS (Simplified Area Payment Scheme) on rental land values in seven New EU Member States (NMS). Using the FADN farm level panel data with 20,930 observations from 2004 and 2005 we are able to control for unobserved heterogeneity, simultaneity, and omitted variable bias, which often distort the incidence measures. According to our results, the SAPS has a positive and statistically significant impact on land rents in the NMS. However, the effect is smaller than theoretically predicted. Land rents capture only 0.19 of the marginal Euro of the SAPS. Taking into account the level of land renting in the NMS, around 10 percent of the total value of SAPS payments benefit non-farming land owners through higher farmland rental prices. Because the share of rented land is higher for corporate than for individual farms, family farms will likely benefit more from the SAPS than corporate farms.
    Keywords: F12 ; L11 ; Q11 ; Q12 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; P32 ; R12 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; Agricultural policy ; decoupled subsidies ; capitalisation ; land value
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: This paper investigates the determinants of the service sector employment share in the EU-15, for the aggregate service sector, four sub-sectors and twelve service sector branches. Recently, both Europe and the US have experienced an increase in the share of service-related jobs in total employment. Although converging in all European countries, a significant gap in the share of service jobs in Europe relative to the US persists. Understanding the main factors behind this gap is key to achieving higher employment levels in Europe. This paper focuses on the role of barriers in the EU-15 which may have hindered its ability to absorb labour supply and therefore to adjust efficiently to the sectoral reallocation of labour. We find that a crucial role in this process has been played by the institutional framework affecting flexibility in the labour market and by the mismatch between workers' skills and job vacancies.
    Keywords: E24 ; J21 ; J23 ; J24 ; L80 ; ddc:330 ; services ; sectoral adjustment ; employment share ; Europe ; US ; institutions in the labour and product market ; Dienstleistungssektor ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Institutionelle Infrastruktur ; Institutioneller Wandel ; EU-Staaten ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We presented Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of two objects of the Taurus population that show unambiguous signs of clea,ring in their inner disks. In one of the objects, DM Tau, the outer disk is truncated at 3 AU; this object is akin to another recently reported in Taurus, CoKu Tau/4, in that the inner disk region is free of small dust. Unlike CoKu Tau/4, however, this star is still accreting, so optically thin gas should still remain in the inner disk region. The other object, GM Aur, also accreting, has about 0.02 lunar masses of small dust in the inner disk region within about 5 AU, consistent with previous reports. However, the IRS spectrum clearly shows that the optically thick outer disk has an inner truncation at a much larger radius than previously suggested, of order 24 AU. These observations provide strong evidence for the presence of gaps in protoplanetary disks.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal; 630; 2; L185 - L188
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We presented the results of an infrared imaging survey of Tr 37 and NGC 7160 using the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our observations cover the wavelength range from 3.6 to 24 microns, allowing us to detect disk emission over a typical range of radii 0.1 to 20 AU from the central star. In Tr 37, with an age of about 4 Myr, about 48% of the low-mass stars exhibit detectable disk emission in the IRAC bands. Roughly 10% of the stars with disks may be "transition" objects, with essentially photospheric fluxes at wavelengths i 4.5 microns but with excesses at longer wavelengths, indicating an optically thin inner disk. The median optically thick disk emission in Tr 37 is lower than the corresponding median for stars in the younger Taurus region; the decrease in infrared excess is larger at 6-8 microns than at 24 microns, suggesting that grain growth and/or dust settling has proceeded faster at smaller disk radii, as expected on general theoretical grounds. Only about 4% of the low-mass stars in the 10 Myr old cluster NGC 7160 show detectable infrared disk emission. We also find evidence for 24 micron excesses around a few intermediate-mass stars, which may represent so-called "debris disk" systems. Our observations provided new constraints on disk evolution through an important age range.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal; 638; 897-919
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We presented the infrared spectrum of the young binary system St 34 obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IRS spectrum clearly shows excess dust emission, consistent with the suggestion of White & Hillenbrand that St 34 is accreting from a circumbinary disk. The disk emission of St 34 is low in comparison with the levels observed in typical T Tauri stars; silicate features at 10 and 20 microns are much weaker than typically seen in T Tauri stars; and excess emission is nearly absent at the shortest wavelengths observed. These features of the infrared spectrum suggest substantial grain growth (to eliminate silicate features) and possible settling of dust to the disk midplane (to reduce the continuum excess emission levels), along with a relatively evacuated inner disk, as expected due to gravitational perturbations by the binary system. Although the position of St 34 in the H-R diagram suggests an age of 8f Myr, assuming that it lies at the distance of the Taurus-Auriga molecular clouds, White & Hillenbrand could not detect any Li I absorption, which would indicate a Li depletion age of roughly 25 Myr or more. We suggest that St 34 is closer than the Taurus clouds by about 30-40 pc and has an age roughly consistent with Li depletion models. Such an advanced age would make St 34 the oldest known low-mass pre-main-sequence object with a dusty accretion disk. The persistence of optically thick dust emission well outside the binary orbit may indicate a failure to make giant planets that could effectively remove dust particles.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal; 628; 2; L147 - L150
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Observations of T Tauri stars and young brown dwarfs suggest that the accretion rates of their disks scales roughly with the square of the central stellar mass. No dependence of accretion rate on stellar mass is predicted by the simplest version of the Gammie layered disk model, in which nonthermal ionization of upper disk layers allows accretion to occur via the magnetorotational instability. We show that a minor modification of Gaminie's model to include heating by irradiation from the central star yields a modest dependence of accretion on the mass of the central star. A purely viscous disk model could provide a strong dependence of accretion rate on stellar mass if the initial disk radius (before much viscous evolution has occurred) has a strong dependence on stellar mass. However, it is far from clear that at least the most massive pre-main-sequence disks can be totally magnetically activated by X-rays or cosmic rays. We suggest that a combination of effects are responsible for the observed dependence, with the lowest mass stars having the lowest mass disks, which can be thoroughly magnetically active, while the higher mass stars have higher mass disks that have layered accret,ion and relatively inactive or "dead" central zones at some radii. In such dead zones, we suggest that gravitational instabilities may play a role in allowing accretion to proceed. In this connection, we emphasize the uncertainty in disk masses derived from dust emission and argue that T Tauri disk masses have been systematically underestimated by conventional analyses. Furtlier study of accretion rates, especially in the lowest mass stars, would help to clarify the mechanisms of accretion in T Tauri stars.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal; 648; 1; 484-490
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