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  • Astrophysics  (4)
  • 2005-2009  (4)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report results from 50 days of data accumulated in two Antarctic flights of the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER). With a detector system composed of scintillators, Cherenkov detectors, and scintillating optical fibers, TIGER has a geometrical acceptance of 1.7 sq m sr and a charge resolution of 0.23 cu at Iron. TIGER has obtained abundance measurements of some of the rare galactic cosmic rays heavier than iron, including Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, and Sr, as well as the more abundant lighter elements (down to Si). The heavy elements have long been recognized as important probes of the nature of the galactic cosmic-ray source and accelerator. After accounting for fragmentation of cosmic-ray nuclei as they propagate through the Galaxy and the atmosphere above the detector system, the TIGER source abundances are consistent with a source that is a mixture of about 20% ejecta from massive stars and 80% interstellar medium with solar system composition. This result supports a model of cosmic-ray origin in OB associations previously inferred from ACE-CRIS data of more abundant lighter elements. These TIGER data also support a cosmic-ray acceleration model in which elements present in interstellar grains are accelerated preferentially compared with those found in interstellar gas.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference/International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP); 7-15 Jul. 2009; Lodz; Poland
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is a new long-duration balloon-borne instrument designed to test and clarify an emerging model of cosmic-ray origins and models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration. A sensitive test of the origin of cosmic rays is the measurement of ultra heavy elemental abundances (Z 〉 or equal 30). Super-TIGER is a large-area (5 sq m) instrument designed to measure the elements in the interval 30 〈 or equal Z 〈 or equal 42 with individual-element resolution and high statistical precision, and make exploratory measurements through Z = 60. It will also measure with high statistical accuracy the energy spectra of the more abundant elements in the interval 14 〈 or equal Z 〈 or equal 30 at energies 0.8 〈 or equal E 〈 or equal 10 GeV/nucleon. These spectra will give a sensitive test of the hypothesis that microquasars or other sources could superpose spectral features on the otherwise smooth energy spectra previously measured with less statistical accuracy. Super-TIGER builds on the heritage of the smaller TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements Ga-31, Ge-32, and Se-34. We present the Super-TIGER design, schedule, and progress to date, and discuss the relevance of UH measurements to cosmic-ray origins.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference/International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP); 7-15 Jul. 2009; Lodz; Poland
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The ENTICE experiment is one of two instruments that comprise the "Orbiting Astrophysical Spectrometer in Space (OASIS)", which is presently undergoing a NASA "Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study". ENTICE is designed to make high precision measurements of the abundances of individual elements from neon through the actinides and, in addition, will search for possible superheavy nuclei in the galactic cosmic rays. The ENTICE instrument utilizes silicon detectors, aerogel and acrylic Cherenkov counters, and a scintillating optical fiber hodoscope to measure the charge and energy of these ultra-heavy nuclei for energies greater than 0.5 GeV/nucleon. It is a large instrument consisting of four modules with a total effective geometrical factor of approx.20 sq m sr. Measurements made in space for a period of three years with ENTICE will enable us to determine if cosmic rays include a component of recently synthesized transuranic elements (Pu-94 and Cm-96), to measure the age of that component, and to test the model of the OB association origin of galactic cosmic rays. Additionally, these observations will enable us to study how diffusive shock acceleration of cosmic rays operates differently on interstellar grains and gas. Keywords: cosmic rays Galaxy:abundances
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: M09-0518 , 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference; 7-5 Jul. 2009; Lodz; Poland
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The ENTICE experiment is one of two instruments that comprise the "Orbiting Astrophysical Spectrometer in Space (OASIS)" which is presently undergoing a NASA "Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study". ENTICE is designed to make high precision measurements of the abundances of individual elements from neon through the actinides and, in addition, will search for possible superheavy nuclei in the galactic cosmic rays. The ENTICE instrument utilizes silicon detectors, aerogel and acrylic Cherenkov counters, and a scintillating optical fiber hodoscope to measure the charge and energy of these ultra-heavy nuclei for energies greater than 0.3 GeV/nucleon. It is a large instrument consisting of four modules with a total effective geometrical factor of ~20 m2sr. Measurements made in space for a period of 3 years with ENTICE will enable us to determine if cosmic rays include a component of recently synthesized heavy elements (Pu and Cm), what the age of that component is, and test the model of the OB association origin of galactic cosmic rays. Additionally, it will enable us to study how diffusive shock acceleration of cosmic rays operates differently on interstellar grains and gas.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: M09-0351 , 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC); 7 - 15 Jul. 2009; Lodz; Poland
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