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  • 1
    Call number: PIK W 511-10-0088
    In: Ecological studies
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: Part A Introduction ; 1 The Functional Significance of Forest Diversity: The Starting Point ; 2 An Introduction to the Functional Diversity of Temperate Forest Trees ; Part B Productivity and Growth ; 3 Diversity and Productivity in Forests: Evidence from Long-Term Experimental Plots ; 4 Confounding Factors in the Observed Productivity-Diversity Relationship in Forests ; 5 Genetic Diversity Parameters Associated with Viability Selection, Reproductive Efficiency and Growth in Forest Tree Species ; Part C Biogeochemical Cycles ; 6 Functioning of Mixed-species Stands: Evidence from a Long-Term Forest Experiment ; 7 The Role of Biodiversity on the Evaporation of Forests ; 8 Effects of Tree Species Diversity on Litter Quality and Decomposition ; 9 The Effect of Biodiversity on Carbon Storage in Soils ; 10 Silviculture and Its Interaction with Biodiversity and the Carbon Balance of Forest Soils ; Part D Animals, Pests, and Disturbances ; 11 Linkages Between Tree Diversity, Soil Faunaand Ecosystem Processes ; 12 A Test of the Biodiversity-Stability Theory: Meta-analysis of Tree Species Diversity Effects on Insect Pest Infestations, and Re-examination of Responsible Factors ; 13 Susceptibility to Fungal Pathogens of Forests Differing in Tree Diversity ; 14 Implication of Forest Diversity in Resistanceto Strong Winds ; 15 Fire Regime and Tree Diversity in Boreal Forests: Implications for the Carbon Cycle ; Part E Perspectives ; 16 The Design of Experimental Tree Plantationsfor Functional Biodiversity Research ; 17 The Functional Significance of Forest Diversity: A Synthesis ; Taxonomic Index (Genera)
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXI, 399 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 3540221913
    Series Statement: Ecological studies 176
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2389
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Fires in boreal forests frequently convert organic matter in the organic layer to black carbon, but we know little of how changing fire frequency alters the amount, composition and distribution of black carbon and organic matter within soils, or affects podzolization. We compared black carbon and organic matter (organic carbon and nitrogen) in soils of three Siberian Scots pine forests with frequent, moderately frequent and infrequent fires.Black carbon did not significantly contribute to the storage of organic matter, most likely because it is consumed by intense fires. We found 99% of black carbon in the organic layer; maximum stocks were 72 g m−2. Less intense fires consumed only parts of the organic layer and converted some organic matter to black carbon (〉 5 g m−2), whereas more intense fires consumed almost the entire organic layer. In the upper 0.25 m of the mineral soil, black carbon stocks were 0.1 g m−2 in the infrequent fire regime.After fire, organic carbon and nitrogen in the organic layer accumulated with an estimated rate of 14.4 g C m−2 year−1 or 0.241 g N m−2 year−1. Maximum stocks 140 years after fire were 2190 g organic C m−2 and 40 g N m−2, with no differences among fire regimes. With increasing fire frequency, stocks of organic carbon increased from 600 to 1100 g m−2 (0–0.25 m). Stocks of nitrogen in the mineral soil were similar among the regimes (0.04 g m−2). We found that greater intensities of fire reduce amounts of organic matter in the organic layer but that the greater frequencies may slightly increase amounts in the mineral soil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 371 (1994), S. 60-62 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Plant water use (transpiration, E) is regulated by the available energy (Rn) and air saturation deficit (D) above the canopy (Fig. \a}. The relative importance of these two factors in regulating plant or ecosystem water use is theoretically summarized in a decoupling coefficient, Q, (OQ 1) derived ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 437 (2005), S. 205-206 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Soils are major players in the carbon cycle — globally, they store the equivalent of about 300 times the amount of carbon now released annually through the burning of fossil fuels. It is generally assumed that most of the carbon locked up in soils is inert, and stays there. But as Bellamy et ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Carbon dioxide, energy flux measurements and methane chamber measurements were carried out in an arctic wet tussock grassland located on a flood plane of the Kolyma river in NE Siberia over a summer period of 155 days in 2002 and early 2003. Respiration was also measured in April 2004. The study region is characterized by late thaw of the top soil (mid of June) and periodic spring floods. A stagnant water table below the grass canopy is fed by thawing of the active layer of permafrost and by flood water. The climate is continental with average daily temperature in the warmest months of 13°C (maximum temperature at midday: 28°C by the end of July), dry air (maximum vapour pressure deficit at midday: 28 hPa) and low rainfall of 50 mm during summer (July–September). Summer evaporation (July–September: 103 mm) exceeded rainfall by a factor of 2. The daily average Bowen ratio (H/LE) was 0.62 during the growing season. Net ecosystem CO2 uptake reached 10 μmol m−2 s−1 and was related to photon flux density (PFD) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD). The cumulative annual net carbon flux from the atmosphere to the terrestrial surface was estimated to be about −38 g C m−2 yr−1 (negative flux depicts net carbon sink). Winter respiration was extrapolated using the Lloyd and Taylor function. The net carbon balance is composed of a high rate of assimilation in a short summer and a fairly large but uncertain respiration mainly during autumn and spring. Methane flux (about 12 g C m−2 measured over 60 days) was 25% of C uptake during the same period of time (end of July to end of September). Assuming that CH4 was emitted only in summer, and taking the greenhouse gas warming potential of CH4 vs. CO2 into account (factor 23), the study site was a greenhouse gas source (at least 200 g Cequivalent m−2 yr−1). Comparing different studies in wetlands and tundra ecosystems as related to latitude, we expect that global warming would rather increase than decrease the CO2-C sink.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We have investigated the interactions between resource assimilation and storage in rosette leaves, and their impact on the growth and reproduction of the annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. The resource balance was experimentally perturbed by changing (i) the external nutrition, by varying the nitrogen supply; (ii) the assimilation and reallocation of resources from rosette leaves to reproductive organs, by cutting or covering rosette leaves at the time of early flower bud formation, and (iii) the internal carbon and nitrogen balance of the plants, by using isogenic mutants either lacking starch formation (PGM mutant) or with reduced nitrate uptake (NU mutant).When plants were grown on high nitrogen, they had higher concentrations of carbohydrates and nitrate in their leaves during the rosette phase than during flowering. However, these storage pools did not significantly contribute to the bulk flow of resources to seeds. The pool size of stored resources in rosette leaves at the onset of seed filling was very low compared to the total amount of carbon and nitrogen needed for seed formation. Instead, the rosette leaves had an important function in the continued assimilation of resources during seed ripening, as shown by the low seed yield of plants whose leaves were covered or cut off. When a key resource became limiting, such as nitrogen in the NU mutants and in plants grown on a low nitrogen supply, stored resources in the rosette leaves (e.g. nitrogen) were remobilized, and made a larger contribution to seed biomass. A change in nutrition resulted in a complete reversal of the plant response: plants shifted from high to low nutrition exhibited a seed yield similar to that of plants grown continuously on a low nitrogen supply, and vice versa. This demonstrates that resource assimilation during the reproductive phase determines seed production.The PGM mutant had a reduced growth rate and a smaller biomass during the rosette phase as a result of changes in respiration caused by a high turnover of soluble sugars (Caspar et al. 1986; W. Schulze et al. 1991). During flowering, however, the vegetative growth rate in the PGM mutant increased, and exceeded that of the wild-type. By the end of the flowering stage, the biomass of the PGM mutant did not differ from that of the wild-type. However, in contrast to the wild-type, the PGM mutant maintained a high vegetative growth rate during seed formation, but had a low rate of seed production. These differences in allocation in the PGM mutant result in a significantly lower seed yield in the starchless mutants. This indicates that starch formation is not only an important factor during growth in the rosette phase, but is also important for whole plant allocation during seed formation. The NU mutant resembled the wild-type grown on a low nitrogen supply, except that it unexpectedly showed symptoms of carbohydrate shortage as well as nitrogen deficiency.In all genotypes and treatments, there was a striking correlation between the concentrations of nitrate and organic nitrogen and shoot growth on the one hand, and sucrose concentration and root growth on the other. In addition, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was correlated with the total carbohydrate concentration: low carbohydrate levels in starchless mutants led to low NRA even at high nitrate supply. Thus the concentrations of stored carbohydrates and nitrate are directly or indirectly involved in regulating allocation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) were subjected to soil drying with their shoots either kept fully turgid using a Passioura-type pressure chamber or allowed to decrease in water potential. Whether the shoots were kept turgid or not, leaf conductance decreased below a certain soil water content. During the soil drying, xylem sap samples were taken from individual intact and transpiring plants. Xylem sap concentrations of nitrate and phosphate decreased with soil water content, whereas the concentrations of the other anions (SO42 and Cl−) remained unaltered. Calcium concentrations also decreased. Potassium, magnesium, manganese and sodium concentrations stayed constant during soil drying. In contrast, the pH, the buffering capacity at a pH below 5 and the cation/anion ratio increased after soil water content was lowered below a certain threshold. Amino acid concentration of the xylem sap increased with decreasing soil water content. The effect of changes in ion concentrations in the xylem sap on leaf conductance is discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Sunflower plants [Helianthus annuus L.) were subjected to soil drought. Leaf conductance declined with soil water content even when the shoot was kept turgid throughout the drying period. The concentration of abscisic acid in the xylem sap increased with decreasing soil water content. No general relation could be established between abscisic acid concentration in the xylem sap and leaf conductance due to marked differences in the sensitivity of leaf conductance of individual plants to abscisic acid from the xylem sap. The combination of these results with data from Gollan, Schurr & Schulze (1992, see pp. 551–559, this issue) reveals close connection of the effectiveness of abscisic acid as a root to shoot signal to the nutritional status of the plant.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The cost of nitrogen storage to current growth was examined in relation to N availability in the biennial Cirsium vulgare. Plants were grown outdoors, in sand culture, with continuous diel drip irrigation of fertilization medium containing one of five different N concentrations. Plants grown at the highest N concentration stored twice as much N in their tap roots as did plants grown at the lowest N concentration. In high-N-grown plants, the storage of N reserves occurred during the period of maximum growth, at the same time as tap-root production. At the time of maximum biomass, stored N was also at a maximum. During the period following maximum biomass, no additional storage of N occurred. This pattern was observed despite frequent late-season leaf senescence which resulted in a large pool of potentially mobile N which could have been stored at no cost to growth. In low-N-grown plants, the production of tap-root storage tissue and the filling of that tissue with stored N were staggered. Tap-root production and growth occurred during the period of maximum growth, as in the high-N-grown plants. However, filling of the storage tissue with N occurred late in the growing season, when the pool of mobile N from senescent leaves was large. The utilization of this late-season N source occurred with little or no cost to growth, and this N is labelled, according to previous definitions, as ‘accumulated’. The costs of storing N in plants of the different N treatments were calculated using two models based on different growth constraints. In one model, the cost of N storage was represented as lost growth due to allocation of N to storage, rather than to the photosynthetic shoot (i.e. growth was assumed to be limited by carbon acquisition). In the second model, the storage cost was calculated as lost growth due to allocation of N to storage, rather than to the nitrogen-acquiring fine-root system (i.e. growth was assumed to be limited by nitrogen acquisition). In both models, the total cost of N storage was predicted to decrease as N availability decreased due to smaller storage pool sizes in plants of the low-N treatments. The cost of filling the tap root with stored N as a percentage of the total storage cost was also reduced as N availability decreased due to the occurrence of late-season accumulation. By relying, at least in part, on late-season accumulation, plants grown at the lowest three levels of N availability reduced total storage costs by 15 to 22%. The results demonstrate that plants are capable of adjusting their storage patterns in response to low nitrogen availability such that the costs of storage are reduced.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Plants of Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. were cultivated under five different nitrogen regimes in order to investigate the effects of nitrogen supply on the storage processes in a biennial species during its first year of growth.External N supply increased total biomass production without changing the relationship between ‘productive plant compartments’ (i.e. shoot plus fine roots) and ‘storage plant compartments’ (i.e. structural root dry weight, which is defined as the difference between tap root biomass and the amount of stored carbohydrates and N compounds). The amount of carbohydrates and N compounds stored per unit of structural tap root dry weight was not affected by external N availability during the season, because high rates of N supply increased the concentration of N compounds whilst decreasing the carbohydrate concentration, and low rates of N supply had the opposite effect. Mobilization of N from senescing leaves was not related to the N status of the plants. The relationship between nitrogen compounds stored in the tap root and the maximum amount of nitrogen in leaves was an increasing function with increasing nitrogen supply. We conclude that the allocation between vegetative plant growth and the growth of storage structures over a wide range of N availability seems to follow predictions from optimum allocation theory, whereas N storage responds in a rather plastic way to N availability.
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