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  • 2005-2009  (27)
  • 1995-1999  (32)
  • 1990-1994  (36)
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  • 1
    Call number: PIK W 511-10-0088
    In: Ecological studies
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: Part A Introduction ; 1 The Functional Significance of Forest Diversity: The Starting Point ; 2 An Introduction to the Functional Diversity of Temperate Forest Trees ; Part B Productivity and Growth ; 3 Diversity and Productivity in Forests: Evidence from Long-Term Experimental Plots ; 4 Confounding Factors in the Observed Productivity-Diversity Relationship in Forests ; 5 Genetic Diversity Parameters Associated with Viability Selection, Reproductive Efficiency and Growth in Forest Tree Species ; Part C Biogeochemical Cycles ; 6 Functioning of Mixed-species Stands: Evidence from a Long-Term Forest Experiment ; 7 The Role of Biodiversity on the Evaporation of Forests ; 8 Effects of Tree Species Diversity on Litter Quality and Decomposition ; 9 The Effect of Biodiversity on Carbon Storage in Soils ; 10 Silviculture and Its Interaction with Biodiversity and the Carbon Balance of Forest Soils ; Part D Animals, Pests, and Disturbances ; 11 Linkages Between Tree Diversity, Soil Faunaand Ecosystem Processes ; 12 A Test of the Biodiversity-Stability Theory: Meta-analysis of Tree Species Diversity Effects on Insect Pest Infestations, and Re-examination of Responsible Factors ; 13 Susceptibility to Fungal Pathogens of Forests Differing in Tree Diversity ; 14 Implication of Forest Diversity in Resistanceto Strong Winds ; 15 Fire Regime and Tree Diversity in Boreal Forests: Implications for the Carbon Cycle ; Part E Perspectives ; 16 The Design of Experimental Tree Plantationsfor Functional Biodiversity Research ; 17 The Functional Significance of Forest Diversity: A Synthesis ; Taxonomic Index (Genera)
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXI, 399 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 3540221913
    Series Statement: Ecological studies 176
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Until now, many extracellular matrix proteins, e.g. osteopontin and osteonectin, have been used to determine a cell’s osteogenic maturation. The disadvantage in evaluation of these proteins is their relative wide-ranging appearance throughout the osteogenic differentiation process. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish an immunohistochemical setup using E11, a marker that binds selectively to cells of the late osteogenic cell lineage. In addition, the histochemical expression of the bone matrix proteins osteonectin, osteopontin and fibronectin was compared to that of E11 using monoclonal antibodies. For light microscopical detection of osteogenic markers in cultured cells we developed a simple paraffin technique using a fibrin glue as embedding medium. This allows the handling of cultured cells such as a tissue sample and includes the use of stored biological specimens for further immunohistochemical experiments. We used newborn rat calvariae for whole tissue preparations and for isolation and cultivation of bone cells. In addition, we included the rat osteosarcoma cell line ROS 17/2.8 in this study. For the first time, we have localised E11 in osteocytes of rat calvaria preparations at the electron microscopical level. E11 was detected at plasma membranes of osteocytes and their processes, but not at those of osteoblasts. Accompanying experiments with cultured newborn rat calvaria cells and ROS 17/2.8 cells revealed E11 reactivity on a subset of cells. The results obtained confirm the suitability of the differentiation marker E11 as a sensitive instrument for the characterisation of bone cell culture systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2389
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Fires in boreal forests frequently convert organic matter in the organic layer to black carbon, but we know little of how changing fire frequency alters the amount, composition and distribution of black carbon and organic matter within soils, or affects podzolization. We compared black carbon and organic matter (organic carbon and nitrogen) in soils of three Siberian Scots pine forests with frequent, moderately frequent and infrequent fires.Black carbon did not significantly contribute to the storage of organic matter, most likely because it is consumed by intense fires. We found 99% of black carbon in the organic layer; maximum stocks were 72 g m−2. Less intense fires consumed only parts of the organic layer and converted some organic matter to black carbon (〉 5 g m−2), whereas more intense fires consumed almost the entire organic layer. In the upper 0.25 m of the mineral soil, black carbon stocks were 0.1 g m−2 in the infrequent fire regime.After fire, organic carbon and nitrogen in the organic layer accumulated with an estimated rate of 14.4 g C m−2 year−1 or 0.241 g N m−2 year−1. Maximum stocks 140 years after fire were 2190 g organic C m−2 and 40 g N m−2, with no differences among fire regimes. With increasing fire frequency, stocks of organic carbon increased from 600 to 1100 g m−2 (0–0.25 m). Stocks of nitrogen in the mineral soil were similar among the regimes (0.04 g m−2). We found that greater intensities of fire reduce amounts of organic matter in the organic layer but that the greater frequencies may slightly increase amounts in the mineral soil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 371 (1994), S. 60-62 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Plant water use (transpiration, E) is regulated by the available energy (Rn) and air saturation deficit (D) above the canopy (Fig. \a}. The relative importance of these two factors in regulating plant or ecosystem water use is theoretically summarized in a decoupling coefficient, Q, (OQ 1) derived ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 437 (2005), S. 205-206 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Soils are major players in the carbon cycle — globally, they store the equivalent of about 300 times the amount of carbon now released annually through the burning of fossil fuels. It is generally assumed that most of the carbon locked up in soils is inert, and stays there. But as Bellamy et ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Canopy ; Evaporation ; Leaf area index ; Scaling ; Surface conductance ; Stomata
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We examine conductances for evaporation from both vegetation and soil in response to environmental variables. Data from a vertically-structured pristine forest of Nothofagus are presented as an example of the effects of biodiversity on the scaling of conductances between tiers of plant organisation. Available data sets of maximum leaf stomatal conductances (g lmax ) and bulk vegetation surface conductances (G smax ) are compared. Overall, the ratio G smax /g lmax is consistently close to 3 for seven major vegetation types of diverse structure. An analytical model accounts for this close relationship, and in particular how G smax is conservative against changes in leaf area index because of the compensating decrease in plant canopy transpiration and increase in soil evaporation as leaf area index diminishes. The model is also successfully tested by comparison with canopy conductances of emergent trees measured in the Nothofagus forest. The constraint of vegetation surface conductance and evaporation via environmental regulation by irradiance, air saturation deficit and root zone water supply are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Carbon dioxide, energy flux measurements and methane chamber measurements were carried out in an arctic wet tussock grassland located on a flood plane of the Kolyma river in NE Siberia over a summer period of 155 days in 2002 and early 2003. Respiration was also measured in April 2004. The study region is characterized by late thaw of the top soil (mid of June) and periodic spring floods. A stagnant water table below the grass canopy is fed by thawing of the active layer of permafrost and by flood water. The climate is continental with average daily temperature in the warmest months of 13°C (maximum temperature at midday: 28°C by the end of July), dry air (maximum vapour pressure deficit at midday: 28 hPa) and low rainfall of 50 mm during summer (July–September). Summer evaporation (July–September: 103 mm) exceeded rainfall by a factor of 2. The daily average Bowen ratio (H/LE) was 0.62 during the growing season. Net ecosystem CO2 uptake reached 10 μmol m−2 s−1 and was related to photon flux density (PFD) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD). The cumulative annual net carbon flux from the atmosphere to the terrestrial surface was estimated to be about −38 g C m−2 yr−1 (negative flux depicts net carbon sink). Winter respiration was extrapolated using the Lloyd and Taylor function. The net carbon balance is composed of a high rate of assimilation in a short summer and a fairly large but uncertain respiration mainly during autumn and spring. Methane flux (about 12 g C m−2 measured over 60 days) was 25% of C uptake during the same period of time (end of July to end of September). Assuming that CH4 was emitted only in summer, and taking the greenhouse gas warming potential of CH4 vs. CO2 into account (factor 23), the study site was a greenhouse gas source (at least 200 g Cequivalent m−2 yr−1). Comparing different studies in wetlands and tundra ecosystems as related to latitude, we expect that global warming would rather increase than decrease the CO2-C sink.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Root exudates were sampled from detopped root systems of castor bean (Ricinus communis). Different volume flux rates were imposed by changing the pneumatic pressure around the root system using a Passioura-type pressure chamber. The concentrations of cations, anions, amino acids, organic acids and abscisic acid decreased hyperbolically when flux rates increased from pure root exudation up to values typical for transpiring plants. Concentrations at low and high fluxes differed by up to 40 times (phosphate) and the ratio of substances changed by factors of up to 10. During the subsequent reduction of flux produced by lowering the pneumatic pressure in the root pressure chamber, the concentrations and ratios of substances deviated (at a given flux rate) from those found when flux was increased. The flux dependence of exudate composition cannot therefore be explained by a simple dilution mechanism. Xylem sap samples from intact, transpiring plants were collected using a Passioura-type root pressure chamber. The concentrations of the xylem sap changed diurnally. Substances could be separated into three groups: (1) calcium, magnesium and amino acid concentrations correlated well with the values expected from their concentration-flux relationships, whereas (2) the concentrations of sulphate and phosphate deviated from the expected relationships during the light phase, and (3) nitrate and potassium concentrations in intact plants varied in completely the opposite manner from those in isolated root systems. Abscisic acid concentrations in the root exudate were dependent on the extent of water use and showed strong diurnal variations in the xylem sap of intact plants even in droughtstressed plants. Calculations using root exudates overestimated export from the root system in intact plants, with the largest deviation found for proton flux (a factor of 10). We conclude that root exudate studies cannot be used as the sole basis for estimating fluxes of substances in the xylem of intact plants. Consequences for studying and modelling xylem transport in whole plants are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We have investigated the interactions between resource assimilation and storage in rosette leaves, and their impact on the growth and reproduction of the annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. The resource balance was experimentally perturbed by changing (i) the external nutrition, by varying the nitrogen supply; (ii) the assimilation and reallocation of resources from rosette leaves to reproductive organs, by cutting or covering rosette leaves at the time of early flower bud formation, and (iii) the internal carbon and nitrogen balance of the plants, by using isogenic mutants either lacking starch formation (PGM mutant) or with reduced nitrate uptake (NU mutant).When plants were grown on high nitrogen, they had higher concentrations of carbohydrates and nitrate in their leaves during the rosette phase than during flowering. However, these storage pools did not significantly contribute to the bulk flow of resources to seeds. The pool size of stored resources in rosette leaves at the onset of seed filling was very low compared to the total amount of carbon and nitrogen needed for seed formation. Instead, the rosette leaves had an important function in the continued assimilation of resources during seed ripening, as shown by the low seed yield of plants whose leaves were covered or cut off. When a key resource became limiting, such as nitrogen in the NU mutants and in plants grown on a low nitrogen supply, stored resources in the rosette leaves (e.g. nitrogen) were remobilized, and made a larger contribution to seed biomass. A change in nutrition resulted in a complete reversal of the plant response: plants shifted from high to low nutrition exhibited a seed yield similar to that of plants grown continuously on a low nitrogen supply, and vice versa. This demonstrates that resource assimilation during the reproductive phase determines seed production.The PGM mutant had a reduced growth rate and a smaller biomass during the rosette phase as a result of changes in respiration caused by a high turnover of soluble sugars (Caspar et al. 1986; W. Schulze et al. 1991). During flowering, however, the vegetative growth rate in the PGM mutant increased, and exceeded that of the wild-type. By the end of the flowering stage, the biomass of the PGM mutant did not differ from that of the wild-type. However, in contrast to the wild-type, the PGM mutant maintained a high vegetative growth rate during seed formation, but had a low rate of seed production. These differences in allocation in the PGM mutant result in a significantly lower seed yield in the starchless mutants. This indicates that starch formation is not only an important factor during growth in the rosette phase, but is also important for whole plant allocation during seed formation. The NU mutant resembled the wild-type grown on a low nitrogen supply, except that it unexpectedly showed symptoms of carbohydrate shortage as well as nitrogen deficiency.In all genotypes and treatments, there was a striking correlation between the concentrations of nitrate and organic nitrogen and shoot growth on the one hand, and sucrose concentration and root growth on the other. In addition, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was correlated with the total carbohydrate concentration: low carbohydrate levels in starchless mutants led to low NRA even at high nitrate supply. Thus the concentrations of stored carbohydrates and nitrate are directly or indirectly involved in regulating allocation.
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