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  • 2005-2009  (37)
  • 2000-2004  (37)
  • 1995-1999  (49)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2007-10-08
    Description: The pre-1980s literature on modern carbonates was biased toward tropical examples because non-tropical carbonates had not been studied extensively. Though non-tropical carbonates have received considerable attention in the past decade, the variety of low-energy, temperate ramp examples in the literature is limited. In contrast, examples of modern and ancient low-energy, tropical ramps are well represented. They are characterized by a gradual change from calcarenites updip to calcilutites downdip, by a photozoan biota, abundant non-skeletal aragonitic grains, such as ooids and peloids, and by widespread and rapid marine cementation. The Balearic Platform in the western Mediterranean is an isolated, low-energy, temperate ramp. This paper describes the Balearic ramp bathymetry, environmental regimes and depositional facies, which include (from the shoreline seaward): coastal lagoons, beach--dune complexes, inner-ramp seagrass meadows with mixed terrigenous--foraminiferal--molluscan muddy calcarenites, middle-ramp bryozoan--rhodalgal facies and outer ramp clastic--carbonate muds. Biotic and textural characteristics vary with depth, with hydrological conditions and with environmental factors, such as temperature, salinity, light and nutrients. Seagrasses extend across the inner and part of the middle ramp, where the grasses offer shelter to a variety organisms, including epibionts, molluscs, bryozoans, echinoderms and red algae. Most of the beach and dune sediments consist of bioclasts derived from the communities that thrive in the seagrass meadows, but the greatest volume of skeletal carbonates is produced as bryozoan, rhodalgal and molluscan gravels that occur as patchy blankets, primarily on the middle ramp. The Balearic Platform is characterized by an oligotrophic, clear water, microtidal environment. The dominant biota of the Balearic ramp -- bryozoans, red algae, echinoderms and molluscs -- is common in other non-tropical modern environments as well as in ancient temperate settings. This fact, combined with the absence of aragonitic non-skeletal grains, abundant marine cements and photozoans other than red algae, establishes the modern Balearic ramp as a model for comparison with low-energy, non-tropical ramps in the global rock record.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: cucumber ; light-regulated gene expression ; NADH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase ; organ-specific gene expression ; peroxisome ; photorespiration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The 5′- and 3′-flanking regions of HPRA, a cucumber gene that encodes hydroxypyruvate reductase, were evaluated for regulatory activity with respect to light responsiveness and organ specificity. To define the functional regions of the 5′-flanking region of HPRA, a series of deletions was generated and the remaining portions fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (uidA) containing a minimal 35S promoter truncated at −90. The region from −66 to +39 was found to be necessary for light-regulated expression of the uidA reporter gene, while the region from −382 to −67 was found to be necessary for its leaf-specific expression. Further deletion of the HPRA 5′ flanking region to −590 resulted in high levels of root expression, suggesting the presence of a negative regulatory element responsible for silencing root expression of the HPRA gene between −590 and −383. The 3′-flanking region of the HPRA gene downstream of the polyadenylation site contains several sequence motifs resembling regulatory elements present in the promoters of several light-responsive genes. An 823 bp portion of the HPRA 3′-flanking region containing these putative regulatory elements enhanced GUS expression in leaves when placed downstream of the uidA reporter gene in the forward orientation, but not in the reverse orientation. When placed 5′ of the −90 35S promoter, the 823 bp fragment enhanced slightly, independently of orientation, the root tip-specific expression pattern intrinsic to the −90 35S promoter, indicating that in some cases this region can act as a transcriptional enhancer.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: cucumber ; cytokinin-responsive ; DNA-binding proteins ; hydroxypyruvate reductase ; transcription
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Transcription of the cucumber hpr-A gene is responsive to cytokinin and light. To investigate the molecular basis for transcriptional regulation by cytokinin, we have identified DNA sequences and proteins that may be involved in the regulation of hpr-A gene expression. Transient expression assays in etiolated cucumber cotyledons indicate that the 315 bp fragment (−382 to −67) contains sequences necessary for cytokinin responsiveness of the luciferase reporter gene. Band shift assays detected cytokinin-enhanced and -reduced protein binding sites in a 97 bp fragment (−382 to −285) upstream of the hpr-A gene. DNase I footprinting identified two protein-protected sites, a 15 bp sequence, 5′-AAATGACGAAAATGC-3′, that contains an as-1 TGACG motif found in other plant promoters, and a 13 bp sequence, 5′-AAGATTGATTGAG-3′, of unknown function. Two-dimensional band shift analysis of the cytokinin-responsive DNA protein complex revealed the presence of six DNA protein interactions. Band shift assays showed that cytokinin and light have different effects on the interaction of nuclear proteins to the 97 bp fragment of the hpr-A gene. These data suggest that cytokinin and light do not share identical signal transduction pathways in regulating hpr-A gene expression.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Foundations of physics 29 (1999), S. 133-135 
    ISSN: 1572-9516
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7489
    Keywords: Design metrics ; design metrics analyzer ; metrics model ; software metrics ; software quality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Metric monsters are stumbling blocks that prevent software metrics-guided methodologies from attaining product and process improvement. Metric monsters can occur during the identification, collection or application of software metrics. In our research, we have developed and tested our design metrics over a five-year period and have found them to be excellent predictors of error-prone modules. Based on this research, we will identify some of the monsters that occur in the quantitative analyses of software and its development processes, and present our approach in formulating a design metrics model that avoids these monsters. This model consists of software tools, guidelines and actions for the application of software design metrics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 77 (2000), S. 3797-3799 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We calculate the self-capacitance and charging energy of a spherical nanoparticle in the Thomas–Fermi approximation. The result is CTF=C0[1−p−1 tanh p]/[1−(1−cursive-epsilon−1)p−1 tanh p], with CTF≥C0. Here C0=4πcursive-epsilon0R is the classical geometrical value, p=R/l is the ratio of the particle radius R to the Thomas–Fermi screening length l, and cursive-epsilon is the material dielectric constant. The addition of surface localized states drives C toward C0. These results should be relevant to tunneling spectroscopy studies of giant carbon onions and "large" semiconductor nanocrystals that do not require a full quantum treatment. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1522-9602
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract We explore evolutionarily stable co-evolution of host-macroparasite interactions in a discrete-time two-species population dynamics model, in which the dynamics may be stable, cyclic or chaotic. The macroparasites are assumed to harm host individuals through decreased reproductive output. Hosts may develop costly immune responses to defend themselves against parasites. Parasites compete with conspecifics by adjusting their fecundities. Overall, the presence of both parasites and the immune response in hosts produces more stable dynamics and lower host population sizes than that observed in the absence of the parasites. In our evolutionary analyses, we show that maximum parasite fecundity is always an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), irrespective of the type of population interaction, and that maximum parasite fecundity generally induces a minimum parasite population size through over-exploitation of the host. Phenotypic polymorphisms with respect to immunity in the host species are common and expected in ESS host strategies: the benefits of immunication depend on the frequency of the immune hosts in the population. In particular, the steady-state proportions of immune hosts depend, in addition to all the parameters of the parasite dynamics only on the cost of immunity and on the virulence of parasites in susceptible hosts. The implicit ecological dynamics of the host-parasite interaction affect the proportion of immune host individuals in the population. Furthermore, when changes in certain population parameters cause the dynamics of the host-parasite interaction to move from stability to cyclicity and then to chaos, the proportion of immune hosts tends to decrease; however, we also detected counter-examples to this result. As a whole, incorporating immunological and genetic aspects, as well as life-history trade-offs, into host-macroparasite dynamics produces a rich extension to the patterns observed in the models of ecological interactions and epidemics, and deserves more attention than is currently the case.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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