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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 30 (2015): 1470-1489, doi:10.1002/2014PA002743.
    Description: The ocean circulation modifies mixed layer (ML) tracer signals as they are communicated to the deep ocean by advection and mixing. We develop and apply a procedure for using tracer signals observed “upstream” (by planktonic foraminifera) and “downstream” (by benthic foraminifera) to constrain how tracer signals are modified by the intervening circulation and, by extension, to constrain properties of that circulation. A history of ML equilibrium calcite δ18O (δ18Oc) spanning the last deglaciation is inferred from a least-squares fit of eight benthic foraminiferal δ18Oc records to Green's function estimated for the modern ocean circulation. Disagreements between this history and the ML history implied by planktonic records would indicate deviations from the modern circulation. No deviations are diagnosed because the two estimates of ML δ18Oc agree within their uncertainties, but we suggest data collection and modeling procedures useful for inferring circulation changes in future studies. Uncertainties of benthic-derived ML δ18Oc are lowest in the high-latitude regions chiefly responsible for ventilating the deep ocean; additional high-resolution planktonic records constraining these regions are of particular utility. Benthic records from the Southern Ocean, where data are sparse, appear to have the most power to reduce uncertainties in benthic-derived ML δ18Oc. Understanding the spatiotemporal covariance of deglacial ML δ18Oc will also improve abilities of δ18Oc records to constrain deglacial circulation.
    Description: 2016-05-12
    Keywords: Oxygen isotopes ; Inverse modeling ; Deglaciation ; Tracers ; Ocean circulation ; Green's function
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-12-14
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This is the author's version of the work and is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 113 (2016): 57-79, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2016.03.008.
    Description: Thorium is a highly particle-reactive element that possesses different measurable radio-isotopes in seawater, with well-constrained production rates and very distinct half-lives. As a result, Th has emerged as a key tracer for the cycling of marine particles and of their chemical constituents, including particulate organic carbon. Here two different versions of a model of Th and particle cycling in the ocean are tested using an unprecedented data set from station GT11-22 of the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic Section: (i) 21 228;230;234Th activities of dissolved and particulate fractions, (ii) 228Ra activities, (iii) 234;238U activities estimated from salinity data and an assumed 234U/238U ratio, and (iv) particle concentrations, below a depth of 125 m. The two model versions assume a single class of particles but rely on different assumptions about the rate parameters for sorption reactions and particle processes: a first version (V1) assumes vertically uniform parameters (a popular description), whereas the second (V2) does not. Both versions are tested by fitting to the GT11-22 data using generalized nonlinear least squares and by analyzing residuals normalized to the data errors. We find that model V2 displays a significantly better fit to the data than model V1. Thus, the mere allowance of vertical variations in the rate parameters can lead to a significantly better fit to the data, without the need to modify the structure or add any new processes to the model. To understand how the better fit is achieved we consider two parameters, K = k1=(k-1 + β-1) and K/P, where k1 is the adsorption rate constant, k-1 the desorption rate constant, β-1 the remineralization rate constant, and P the particle concentration. We find that the rate constant ratio K is large (≥0.2) in the upper 1000 m and decreases to a nearly uniform value of ca. 0.12 below 2000 m, implying that the specific rate at which Th attaches to particles relative to that at which it is released from particles is higher in the upper ocean than in the deep ocean. In contrast, K/P increases with depth below 500 m. The parameters K and K/P display significant positive and negative monotonic relationship with P, respectively, which is collectively consistent with a particle concentration effect.
    Description: We acknowledge the U.S. National Science Foundation for providing funding for this study (grant OCE-1232578) and for U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic section ship time, sampling, and data analysis.
    Description: 2017-03-31
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; North Atlantic ; Thorium ; Particles ; Reversible Exchange ; Model ; Inverse Method
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2018. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here under a nonexclusive, irrevocable, paid-up, worldwide license granted to WHOI. It is made available for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 233 (2018): 115-134, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2018.04.035.
    Description: The dependence of thorium scavenging by particles on particle composition is examined at selected stations of the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic Section (GA03). Scavenging is here described by the apparent, first-order rate constant of Th adsorption onto particles (k1), as estimated from an inversion of Th radioisotope and radioactive parent data. Our k1 estimates are regressed against particle phase data using two different models. Model I considers biogenic particles (POC+PIC+bSi), lithogenic particles, Mn (oxyhydr)oxides, and Fe (oxyhydr)oxides as regressors, and k1 as the regressand. Model II considers ln(POC+PIC+bSi), ln(lithogenic particles), ln(Mn (oxyhydr)oxides), and ln(Fe (oxyhydr)oxides) as regressors, and ln(k1) as the regressand, where ln() denotes the natural logarithm. Thus, models I and II posit that the effects of particle phases on k1 are, respectively, additive and multiplicative. These models are applied to three groups of stations: (i) all selected stations, (ii) stations west of theMauritanian upwelling region (“western stations”), and (iii) stations within that region (“eastern stations”). We find that model II appears to better describe the effect of particle composition on k1 than model I. Particle composition explains a larger fraction of the variance of k1 for the eastern stations (R2 = 0.60 for model I and 0.67 for model II) than for the western stations (R2 = 0.26 for model I and 0.39 for model II). When considering all stations, the variance of k1 explained by particle composition is intermediate (R2 = 0.50 for model I and 0.51 for model II). According to model II, the variance of k1 explained by particle composition is predominantly due to biogenic particles at the eastern stations and to Mn (oxyhydr)oxides at the western stations. Additionally, we find that particle composition does not explain a significantly different proportion of variance of k1 than particle concentration. It is thus concluded that, at our selected stations, (i) biogenic particles andMn (oxyhydr)oxides more strongly influence Th scavenging than any other phases considered, and (ii) particle composition and particle concentration have comparable effects on this process.
    Description: We acknowledge the U.S. National Science Foundation for supporting this study (grant OCE-1232578) and the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic section ship time, sampling, and data analysis.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Blackwell, 2007. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Blackwell for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Tellus A 59 (2007): 141–154, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0870.2006.00193.x.
    Description: The 'Sandström theorem' as interpreted by Jeffreys (1925) is that in a flow maintained by a temperature difference, the pathline from the cold region to the warm region must lie below the return path. A formal demonstration of the argument for a rotating fluid requires three assumptions about the relative circulation around a closed material line: (i) the flow is steady, (ii) the closed material line is a closed streamline and (iii) the work done by friction along the streamline is negative. The argument extends to unsteady flows, thereby relaxing (i-ii), if the absolute circulation along the material line is a bounded function of time - a condition that is met for flows with small Rossby number. Its validity for time-periodic two-dimensional flows of horizontal convection is verified numerically. Poincaré sections reveal the presence of chaotic particle transport in these flows, even though the Eulerian velocity fields have a simple time dependence. In spite of chaotic advection, particle motion is in general downwards in the cold region and upwards in the warm region of the fluid, which is consistent with the flow shape envisioned by Jeffreys. This paper gives support to the validity of his argument for the unsteady case and enhances its relevance for the dynamical interpretation of the basic structure of geophysical flows.
    Description: This work has been supported in part by a grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-17
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 31 (2018): 8059-8079, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0769.1.
    Description: We use the method of least squares with Lagrange multipliers to fit an ocean general circulation model to the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean Surface (MARGO) estimate of near sea surface temperature (NSST) at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; circa 23–19 thousand years ago). Compared to a modern simulation, the resulting global, last-glacial ocean state estimate, which fits the MARGO data within uncertainties in a free-running coupled ocean–sea ice simulation, has global-mean NSSTs that are 2°C lower and greater sea ice extent in all seasons in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Increased brine rejection by sea ice formation in the Southern Ocean contributes to a stronger abyssal stratification set principally by salinity, qualitatively consistent with pore fluid measurements. The upper cell of the glacial Atlantic overturning circulation is deeper and stronger. Dye release experiments show similar distributions of Southern Ocean source waters in the glacial and modern western Atlantic, suggesting that LGM NSST data do not require a major reorganization of abyssal water masses. Outstanding challenges in reconstructing LGM ocean conditions include reducing effects from model biases and finding computationally efficient ways to incorporate abyssal tracers in global circulation inversions. Progress will be aided by the development of coupled ocean–atmosphere–ice inverse models, by improving high-latitude model processes that connect the upper and abyssal oceans, and by the collection of additional paleoclimate observations.
    Description: DEA was supported by a NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and NSF Grant OCE-1060735. OM acknowledges support from the NSF. GF was supported by NASA Award 1553749 and Simons Foundation Award 549931.
    Keywords: Ocean ; Abyssal circulation ; Sea surface temperature ; Paleoclimate ; Inverse methods ; Ocean models
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here under a nonexclusive, irrevocable, paid-up, worldwide license granted to WHOI. It is made available for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 125 (2017): 106-128, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2017.05.003.
    Description: The high particle reactivity of thorium has resulted in its widespread use in tracing processes impacting marine particles and their chemical constituents. The use of thorium isotopes as tracers of particle dynamics, however, largely relies on our understanding of how the element scavenges onto particles. Here, we estimate apparent rate constants of Th adsorption (k1), Th desorption (k−1), bulk particle degradation (β-1), and bulk particle sinking speed (w) along the water column at 11 open-ocean stations occupied during the GEOTRACES North Atlantic Section (GA03). First, we provide evidence that the budgets of Th isotopes and particles at these stations appear to be generally dominated by radioactive production and decay sorption reactions, particle degradation, and particle sinking. Rate parameters are then estimated by fitting a Th and particle cycling model to data of dissolved and particulate 228,230,234Th, 228Ra, particle concentrations, and 234,238U estimates based on salinity, using a nonlinear programming technique. We find that the adsorption rate constant (k1) generally decreases with depth across the section: broadly, the time scale 1/k1 averages 1.0 yr in the upper 1000 m and (1.4–1.5) yr below. A positive relationship between k1 and particle concentration (P) is found, i.e., , k1 ∝ Pb where b ≥ 1, consistent with the notion that k1 increases with the number of surface sites available for adsorption. The rate constant ratio, K = k1/(k-1 + β-1), which measures the collective influence of rate parameters on Th scavenging, averages 0.2 for most stations and most depths. We clarify the conditions under which K/P is equivalent to the distribution coefficient, KD, test that the conditions are met at the stations, and find that decreases with P, in line with a particle concentration effect (dKD/dP 〈 0). In contrast to the influence of colloids as envisioned by the Brownian pumping hypothesis, we provide evidence that the particle concentration effect arises from the joint effect of P on the rate constants for thorium attachment to, and detachment from, particles.
    Description: We acknowledge the U.S. National Science Foundation for providing funding for this study (grant OCE-1232578) and for U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic section ship time, sampling, and data analysis. The U.S. NSF also supported the generation of 230Th data (OCE-0927064 to LDEO, OCE-O092860 to WHOI, and OCE-0927754 to UMN) and 228,234Th data (OCE-0925158 to WHOI).
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; Thorium ; Particle Concentration Effect ; Single-particle class model ; Inverse method
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-08
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology 33 (2018): 128-151, doi:10.1002/2017PA003174.
    Description: We present a synthesis of 1,361 deep‐sea radiocarbon data spanning the past 40 kyr and computed (for 14C‐dated records) from the same calibration to atmospheric 14C. The most notable feature in our compilation is a long‐term Δ14C decline in deep oceanic basins over the past 25 kyr. The Δ14C decline mirrors the drop in reconstructed atmospheric Δ14C, suggesting that it may reflect a decrease in global 14C inventory rather than a redistribution of 14C among different reservoirs. Motivated by this observation, we explore the extent to which the deep water Δ14C data jointly require changes in basin‐scale ventilation during the last deglaciation, based on the fit of a 16‐box model of modern ocean ventilation to the deep water Δ14C records. We find that the fit residuals can largely be explained by data uncertainties and that the surface water Δ14C values producing the fit are within the bounds provided by contemporaneous values of atmospheric and deep water Δ14C. On the other hand, some of the surface Δ14C values in the northern North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean deviate from the values expected from atmospheric 14CO2 and CO2 concentrations during the Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Bølling‐Allerød. The possibility that deep water Δ14C records reflect some combination of changes in deep circulation and surface water reservoir ages cannot be ruled out and will need to be investigated with a more complete model.
    Description: U.S. National Science Foundation Grant Number: OCE‐1301907
    Description: 2018-07-08
    Keywords: Last deglaciation ; Ocean ventilation ; Data synthesis ; Radiocarbon ; Inverse method
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2007. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 54 (2007): 557-585, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2007.01.002.
    Description: An inverse finite-difference model of the abyssal circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean is developed in order to evaluate the dynamical information contained in measurements of thorium-230 (230Th). The model has a very coarse resolution and is based on lowest order balances for planetary flows. The naturally occurring 230Th differs from more conventional oceanic tracers in several respects, e.g., its production (by 234U radioactive decay) is globally uniform to a good approximation and its removal can be understood in terms of a simple reversible exchange with particles sinking slowly to the seafloor. The time required for 230Th to reach steady state with respect to particle exchange is estimated to increase with depth, reaching O(10) yr below 1000 m. In the North Atlantic 230Th activities at distant locations share a similar increase with depth in the upper 1000m—a pattern consistent with a reversible exchange—but show drastic differences in the abyssal interior. Two inversions are conducted in order to determine whether the 230Th differences reflect the effects of the circulation—by preventing the slow attainment to steady state w.r.t. particle exchange in deep water—and provide complementary information about the abyssal flow. In a first inversion, observations of density from a hydrographic compilation and of volume transports at specific locations are combined with the dynamical balances in order to infer the basin-scale flow. The inferred flow displays the western boundary current and coherent structures in the abyssal interior with low statistical significance. In a second inversion, the flow is further constrained by the 230Th measurements and the condition that 230Th divergence by the flow field and particle sinking must be locally balanced by 230Th production from 234U decay. The addition of 230Th leads to the estimation of a larger amplitude of the integrated meridional transports below 1000 m (by 2–9 Sv), where the range reflects the uncertainties in the large scale 230Th distribution and in the radiochemical balance. This result is interpreted as a correction by 230Th for the tendency of inverse geostrophic models to lead to the inference of a vanishing circulation when horizontal density gradients are insignificant.
    Description: OM acknowledges the support from the Ocean and Climate Change Institute at WHOI and from the US National Science Foundation. The IAEA (JS) is grateful for the support provided to its Marine Environment Laboratory by the Government of the Principality of Monaco. JS is grateful to Jan Fietzke for ICPMS measurements and for support from the ‘Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft’ (grant no. SCHO752/ 2-1).
    Keywords: Thorium-230 ; Abyssal circulation ; North Atlantic ; Inverse method
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-08-19
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 29 (2016): 1545-1571, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0509.1.
    Description: Three sediment records of sea surface temperature (SST) are analyzed that originate from distant locations in the North Atlantic, have centennial-to-multicentennial resolution, are based on the same reconstruction method and chronological assumptions, and span the past 15 000 yr. Using recursive least squares techniques, an estimate of the time-dependent North Atlantic SST field over the last 15 kyr is sought that is consistent with both the SST records and a surface ocean circulation model, given estimates of their respective error (co)variances. Under the authors’ assumptions about data and model errors, it is found that the 10°C mixed layer isotherm, which approximately traces the modern Subpolar Front, would have moved by ~15° of latitude southward (northward) in the eastern North Atlantic at the onset (termination) of the Younger Dryas cold interval (YD), a result significant at the level of two standard deviations in the isotherm position. In contrast, meridional movements of the isotherm in the Newfoundland basin are estimated to be small and not significant. Thus, the isotherm would have pivoted twice around a region southeast of the Grand Banks, with a southwest–northeast orientation during the warm intervals of the Bølling–Allerød and the Holocene and a more zonal orientation and southerly position during the cold interval of the YD. This study provides an assessment of the significance of similar previous inferences and illustrates the potential of recursive least squares in paleoceanography.
    Description: OM acknowledges support from the U.S. National Science Foundation. CW acknowledges support from the European Research Council ERC Grant ACCLIMATE 339108.
    Description: 2016-08-19
    Keywords: Geographic location/entity ; North Atlantic Ocean ; Circulation/ Dynamics ; Fronts ; Mathematical and statistical techniques ; Inverse methods ; Kalman filters ; Variability ; Climate variability ; Oceanic variability
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  • 10
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    Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union
    Publication Date: 2017-11-13
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Cryosphere 11 (2017): 2439-2462, doi:10.5194/tc-11-2439-2017.
    Description: Methanesulfonic acid (MSA; CH3SO3H) in polar ice is a unique proxy of marine primary productivity, synoptic atmospheric transport, and regional sea-ice behavior. However, MSA can be mobile within the firn and ice matrix, a post-depositional process that is well known but poorly understood and documented, leading to uncertainties in the integrity of the MSA paleoclimatic signal. Here, we use a compilation of 22 ice core MSA records from Greenland and Antarctica and a model of soluble impurity transport in order to comprehensively investigate the vertical migration of MSA from summer layers, where MSA is originally deposited, to adjacent winter layers in polar ice. We find that the shallowest depth of MSA migration in our compilation varies over a wide range (∼ 2 to 400 m) and is positively correlated with snow accumulation rate and negatively correlated with ice concentration of Na+ (typically the most abundant marine cation). Although the considered soluble impurity transport model provides a useful mechanistic framework for studying MSA migration, it remains limited by inadequate constraints on key physico-chemical parameters – most notably, the diffusion coefficient of MSA in cold ice (DMS). We derive a simplified version of the model, which includes DMS as the sole parameter, in order to illuminate aspects of the migration process. Using this model, we show that the progressive phase alignment of MSA and Na+ concentration peaks observed along a high-resolution West Antarctic core is most consistent with 10−12 m2 s−1 〈 DMS 〈 10−11 m2 s−1, which is 1 order of magnitude greater than the DMS values previously estimated from laboratory studies. More generally, our data synthesis and model results suggest that (i) MSA migration may be fairly ubiquitous, particularly at coastal and (or) high-accumulation regions across Greenland and Antarctica; and (ii) can significantly change annual and multiyear MSA concentration averages. Thus, in most cases, caution should be exercised when interpreting polar ice core MSA records, although records that have undergone severe migration could still be useful for inferring decadal and lower-frequency climate variability.
    Description: Matthew Osman acknowledges government support awarded by DoD, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a. This work was supported by the US NSF (ANT-0632031 and PLR-1205196 to Sarah B. Das, and NSF-MRI-1126217 to Matthew J. Evans) and a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Interdisciplinary Research award to Sarah B. Das and Olivier Marchal.
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