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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2010. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Ocean Modelling 35 (2010): 119-133, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.08.003.
    Description: Four-dimensional Variational data assimilation (4DVAR) in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to produce a best-estimate analysis of ocean circulation in the New York Bight during spring 2006 by assimilating observations collected by a variety of instruments during an intensive field program. An incremental approach is applied in an overlapped cycling system with 3-day data assimilation window to adjust model initial conditions. The model-observation mismatch for all observed variables is reduced substantially. Comparisons between model forecast and independent observations show improved forecast skill for about 15 days for temperature and salinity, and 2 to 3 days for velocity. Tests assimilating only certain subsets of the data indicate that assimilating satellite sea surface temperature improves the forecast of surface and subsurface temperature but worsens the salinity forecast. Assimilating in situ temperature and salinity from gliders improves the salinity forecast but has little effect on temperature. Assimilating HF-radar surface current data improves the velocity forecast by 1-2 days yet worsens the forecast of subsurface temperature. During some time periods the convergence for velocity is poor as a result of the data assimilation system being unable to reduce errors in the applied winds because surface forcing is not among the control variables. This study demonstrates the capability of 4DVAR data assimilation system to reduce model-observation mismatch and improve forecasts in the coastal ocean, and highlights the value of accurate meteorological forcing.
    Description: This work was funded by National Science Foundation grant OCE-0238957.
    Keywords: Data assimilation ; 4DVAR ; ROMS ; Ocean prediction ; New York Bight ; River plume
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 28 (2011): 1065–1071, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-10-05030.1.
    Description: In this work a new methodology is proposed to correct the thermal lag error in data from unpumped CTD sensors installed on Slocum gliders. The advantage of the new approach is twofold: first, it takes into account the variable speed of the glider; and second, it can be applied to CTD profiles from an autonomous platform either with or without a reference cast. The proposed methodology finds values for four correction parameters that minimize the area between two temperature–salinity curves given by two CTD profiles. A field experiment with a Slocum glider and a standard CTD was conducted to test the method. Thermal lag–induced salinity error of about 0.3 psu was found and successfully corrected.
    Description: This work is part of the SINOCOP and GliderBal projects funded by CSIC and Govern Balear, respectively.
    Keywords: Data processingStommel ; In situ observations
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 118 (2013): 517–535, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20068.
    Description: A two-dimensional (cross-shelf) numerical model of the mean seasonal circulation offshore of southern New England predicts upwelling at the shelfbreak front. Expected ramifications of this upwelling include enhancement of nutrient supply, phytoplankton biomass, and productivity. However, seasonal climatologies of chlorophyll based on both in situ data and satellite observations show no mean enhancement at the front. We investigate this apparent discrepancy with a four-component planktonic ecosystem model coupled to the two-dimensional physical model. Nutrient fields are restored to climatological values at depth, and upper ocean values evolve freely according to physical and biological forcing. Vertical diffusivity is based on seasonally averaged surface and bottom mixed layer depths compiled from in situ observations. The model reproduces the general pattern of the observed cross-shelf and seasonal variations of the chlorophyll distribution. It predicts a local enhancement of phytoplankton productivity at the shelfbreak in spring and summer as a result of the persistently upwelled nutrient-rich slope water. In the model, zooplankton grazing prevents accumulation of phytoplankton biomass at the site of the upwelling. The predicted enhancement of primary productivity (but not phytoplankton biomass) at the shelfbreak constitutes a hypothesis that could be tested in the future with suitable measurements from regional long-term observatories, such as the Ocean Observatories Initiative Pioneer Array.
    Description: WGZ was supported by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) postdoctoral scholarship program, the WHOI Coastal Ocean Institute, and the National Science Foundation through grant OCE-1129125. DJM and GGG were supported by ONR grant N00014-06-1-0739. DJM gratefully acknowledges support of WHOI’s H. W. Jannasch Chair.
    Description: 2013-07-31
    Keywords: Shelfbreak front ; Biological productivity ; NPZD modeling ; Zooplankton grazing ; Shelf break upwelling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 44 (2014): 834-849, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-0179.1.
    Description: A hydrostatic numerical model with alongshore-uniform barotropic M2 tidal boundary forcing and idealized shelfbreak canyon bathymetries is used to study internal-tide generation and onshore propagation. A control simulation with Mid-Atlantic Bight representative bathymetry is supported by other simulations that serve to identify specific processes. The canyons and adjacent slopes are transcritical in steepness with respect to M2 internal wave characteristics. Although the various canyons are symmetrical in structure, barotropic-to-baroclinic energy conversion rates Cυ are typically asymmetrical within them. The resulting onshore-propagating internal waves are the strongest along beams in the horizontal plane, with the stronger beam in the control simulation lying on the side with higher Cυ. Analysis of the simulation results suggests that the cross-canyon asymmetrical Cυ distributions are caused by multiple-scattering effects on one canyon side slope, because the phase variation in the spatially distributed internal-tide sources, governed by variations in the orientation of the bathymetry gradient vector, allows resonant internal-tide generation. A less complex, semianalytical, modal internal wave propagation model with sources placed along the critical-slope locus (where the M2 internal wave characteristic is tangent to the seabed) and variable source phasing is used to diagnose the physics of the horizontal beams of onshore internal wave radiation. Model analysis explains how the cross-canyon phase and amplitude variations in the locally generated internal tides affect parameters of the internal-tide beams. Under the assumption that strong internal tides on continental shelves evolve to include nonlinear wave trains, the asymmetrical internal-tide generation and beam radiation effects may lead to nonlinear internal waves and enhanced mixing occurring preferentially on one side of shelfbreak canyons, in the absence of other influencing factors.
    Description: All three authors were supported by Office of Naval Research (ONR) Grant N00014-11-1-0701. WGZ was additionally supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant OCE-1154575, and TFD was additionally supported by NSF Grant OCE-1060430.
    Description: 2014-09-01
    Keywords: Circulation/ Dynamics ; Baroclinic flows ; Internal waves ; Ocean circulation ; Topographic effects ; Waves, oceanic ; Models and modeling ; Numerical analysis/modeling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 44 (2014): 1563–1581, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-0188.1.
    Description: This study examines the dispersal of dense water formed in an idealized coastal polynya on a sloping shelf in the absence of ambient circulation and stratification. Both numerical and laboratory experiments reveal two separate bottom pathways for the dense water: an offshore plume moving downslope into deeper ambient water and a coastal current flowing in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation. Scaling analysis shows that the velocity of the offshore plume is proportional not only to the reduced gravity, bottom slope, and inverse of the Coriolis parameter, but also to the ratio of the dense water depth to total water depth. The dense water coastal current is generated by the along-shelf baroclinic pressure gradient. Its dynamics can be separated into two stages: (i) near the source region, where viscous terms are negligible, its speed is proportional to the reduced gravity wave speed and (ii) in the far field, where bottom drag becomes important and balances the pressure gradient, the velocity is proportional to Hc[g′/(LCd)]1/2 in which Hc is the water depth at the coast, g′ the reduced gravity, Cd the quadratic bottom drag coefficient, and L the along-shelf span of the baroclinic pressure gradient. The velocity scalings are verified using numerical and laboratory sensitivity experiments. The numerical simulations suggest that only 3%–23% of the dense water enters the coastal pathway, and the percentage depends highly on the ratio of the velocities of the offshore and coastal plumes. This makes the velocity ratio potentially useful for observational studies to assess the amount of dense water formed in coastal polynyas.
    Description: WGZ was sponsored by the WHOI Arctic Research Initiative program. CC received support from the National Science Foundation Project OCE-1130008.
    Description: 2014-12-01
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 43 (2013): 2641–2660, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-12-0239.1.
    Description: To quantify dynamical aspects of internal-tide generation at the Mid-Atlantic Bight shelf break, this study employs an idealized ocean model initialized by climatological summertime stratification and forced by monochromatic barotropic tidal currents at the offshore boundary. The Froude number of the scenario is subunity, and the bathymetric slope offshore of the shelf break is supercritical. A barotropic-to-baroclinic energy conversion rate of 335 W m−1 is found, with 14% of the energy locally dissipated through turbulence and bottom friction and 18% radiated onto the shelf. Consistent with prior studies, nonlinear effects result in additional super- and subharmonic internal waves at the shelf break. The subharmonic waves are subinertial, evanescent, and mostly trapped within a narrow beam of internal waves at the forcing frequency. They likely result from nonresonant triad interaction associated with strong nonlinearity. Strong vertical shear associated with the subharmonic waves tends to enhance local energy dissipation and turbulent momentum exchange (TME). A simulation with reduced tidal forcing shows an expected diminished level of harmonic energy. A quasi-linear simulation verifies the role of momentum advection in controlling the relative phases of internal tides and the efficiency of barotropic-to-baroclinic energy conversion. The local TME is tightly coupled with the internal-wave dynamics: for the chosen configuration, neglecting TME causes the internal-wave energy to be overestimated by 12%, and increasing it to high levels damps the waves on the continental shelf. This work implies a necessity to carefully consider nonlinearity and turbulent processes in the calculation of internal tidal waves generated at the shelf break.
    Description: This research was supported by Office of Naval Research Grant N00014-11-1-0701.
    Description: 2014-06-01
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2010. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Ocean Modelling 35 (2010): 134-145, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.06.006.
    Description: As part of an effort to build an integrated observation and modeling system for the New York Bight, this study explores observing system design using a representer-based method. The Representer of a single observation describes the covariance between the observed quantity and ocean state at all locations at any time. It is related closely to the influence of the observation on control variable correction in a 4D Variational data assimilation system. We prove that these properties hold for the combination of representers that is associated with an arithmetic function of model variables or a group of observations. The representer-based method is used here to identify which of a set of proposed tracks for an autonomous coastal glider is better for predicting horizontal salt flux within the Hudson Shelf Valley in a 2-day forecast period. Twin experiments confirm the result. The system is also used to compare different observation strategies. We show that a glider that traverses a regular transect influences a larger area than a continuously profiling mooring, but the mooring carries stronger influence at the observation location. The representer analysis shows how the information provided by observations extends toward the dynamically upstream and how increasing the duration of the analysis window captures more dynamical connections and expands the area of influence of the observations in data assimilation. Overall, the study demonstrates that the representer methodology can quantitatively contrast different observational strategies and determine spatial patterns and temporal extent of the influence of observations, both of which are helpful for evaluating the design of observation networks.
    Description: This work was funded by National Science Foundation grant OCE-0238957.
    Keywords: Representer ; Adjoint ; Observing system design ; Adaptive sampling ; Observation influence ; New York Bight
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 41 (2011): 1874–1893, doi:10.1175/2011JPO4604.1.
    Description: A two-dimensional cross-shelf model of the New England continental shelf and slope is used to investigate the mean cross-shelf and vertical circulation at the shelf break and their seasonal variation. The model temperature and salinity fields are nudged toward climatology. Annual and seasonal mean wind stresses are applied on the surface in separate equilibrium simulations. The along-shelf pressure gradient force associated with the along-shelf sea level tilt is tuned to match the modeled and observed depth-averaged along-shelf velocity. Steady-state model solutions show strong seasonal variation in along-shelf and cross-shelf velocity, with the strongest along-shelf jet and interior onshore flow in winter, consistent with observations. Along-shelf sea level tilt associated with the tuned along-shelf pressure gradient increases shoreward because of decreasing water depth. The along-shelf sea level tilt varies seasonally with the wind and is the strongest in winter and weakest in summer. A persistent upwelling is generated at the shelf break with a maximum strength of 2 m day−1 at 50-m depth in winter. The modeled shelfbreak upwelling differs from the traditional view in that most of the upwelled water is from the upper continental slope instead of from the shelf in the form of a detached bottom boundary layer.
    Description: WGZ was supported by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution postdoctoral scholarship program. GGGandDJMwere supported byONRGrant N-00014- 06-1-0739.
    Keywords: Ocean circulation ; North Atlantic Ocean
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-10-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-3670
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0485
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-06-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-3670
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0485
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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