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  • 2010-2014  (558)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-01-15
    Description: A unique avian-origin A/H7N9 influenza virus has so far caused 134 cases with 44 deaths. Probing the host factors contributing to disease severity, we found that lower levels of plasma inflammatory cytokines on hospital admission correlated with faster recovery in 18 patients with A/H7N9 influenza virus, whereas high concentrations of...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-03-26
    Description: The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) system has emerged as a powerful tool for targeted gene editing in many organisms, including plants. However, all of the reported studies in plants focused on either transient systems or the first generation after the CRISPR/Cas system was stably transformed into...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-01-08
    Description: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and the mesenchymal GBM subtype in particular are highly malignant tumors that frequently exhibit regions of severe hypoxia and necrosis. Because these features correlate with poor prognosis, we investigated microRNAs whose expression might regulate hypoxic GBM cell survival and growth. We determined that the expression of microRNA-218...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-08-01
    Description: Imaging of protein–protein and RNA–protein interactions in vivo , especially in live animals, is still challenging. Here we developed far-red mNeptune-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and trimolecular fluorescence complementation (TriFC) systems with excitation and emission above 600 nm in the ‘tissue optical window’ for imaging of protein–protein and RNA–protein interactions in live cells and mice. The far-red mNeptune BiFC was first built by selecting appropriate split mNeptune fragments, and then the mNeptune-TriFC system was built based on the mNeptune-BiFC system. The newly constructed mNeptune BiFC and TriFC systems were verified as useful tools for imaging protein–protein and mRNA–protein interactions, respectively, in live cells and mice. We then used the new mNeptune-TriFC system to investigate the interactions between human polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein (PTB) and HIV-1 mRNA elements as PTB may participate in HIV mRNA processing in HIV activation from latency. An interaction between PTB and the 3'long terminal repeat region of HIV-1 mRNAs was found and imaged in live cells and mice, implying a role for PTB in regulating HIV-1 mRNA processing. The study provides new tools for in vivo imaging of RNA–protein and protein–protein interactions, and adds new insight into the mechanism of HIV-1 mRNA processing.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-06-21
    Description: Perfectly matched layer (PML) is an efficient absorbing technique for numerical wave simulations. Since it appeared, various improvements have been made. The complex frequency-shifted PML (CFS-PML) improves the absorbing performance for near-grazing incident waves and evanescent waves. The auxiliary differential equation (ADE) formulation of the PML provides a convenient unsplit-field PML implementation that can be directly used with high order time marching schemes. The multi-axial PML (MPML) stabilizes the PML on anisotropic media. However, these improvements were generally developed for Cartesian grids. In this paper, we extend the ADE CFS-PML to general curvilinear (non-orthogonal) grids for elastic wave modelling. Unlike the common implementations to absorb the waves in the computational space, we apply the damping along the perpendicular direction of the PML layer in the local Cartesian coordinates. Further, we relate the perpendicular and parallel components of the gradient operator in the local Cartesian coordinates to the derivatives in the curvilinear coordinates, to avoid mapping the wavefield to the local Cartesian coordinates. It is thus easy to be incorporated with numerical schemes on curvilinear grids. We derive the PML equations for the interior region and for the free surface separately because the free surface boundary condition modifies the elastic wave equations. We show that the elastic wave modelling on curvilinear grids exhibits anisotropic effects in the computational space, which may lead to unstable simulations. To stabilize the simulation, we adapt the MPML strategy to also absorb the wavefield along the two parallel directions of the PML. We illustrate the stability of this ADE CFS-MPML for finite-difference elastic wave simulations on curvilinear grids by two numerical experiments.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-05-17
    Description: Congenital cataracts are a significant cause of visual impairment or blindness in children. One-third of cases estimated to have a genetic cause. We carried out gene analysis and bioinformatics analysis to map the locus and to identify the underlying genetic defect in a 12-member, four-generation Chinese family affected with bilateral congenital cataracts. We screened individuals of the family and discovered a distinct missense mutation in HSF4 (a gene at this locus that encodes teat-shock transcription factor 4). Bioinformatics analysis was used to determine possible changes in the protein structure that could affect the phenotype. Sequencing of the candidate genes showed a heterozygous c.69 G-〉T change in the heat shock transcription factor 4 ( HSF4 ) gene, which resulted in the substitution of a lysine with an asparagine (p. K23N). This mutation cosegregated with all affected individuals and was not observed in unaffected family members. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the p. K23N mutation was predicted to be disease causing. This is the first report of the novel missense mutation, c.69 G-〉T (p. K23N), in exon 3 of the HSF4 locus on 16q21-q22 associated with bilateral congenital cataracts in a Chinese family. This novel mutation could enable propergenetic diagnostics and counseling in affected families and could lead to a better understanding of the structure and function of HSF4 in health and disease.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-10-28
    Description: Optical phonons and phase transitions of Bi 1− x La x Fe 1− y Ti y O 3 (BLFTO, 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.12, 0.01 ≤ y ≤ 0.08) ceramics have been investigated by Raman scattering in the temperature range from 80 to 680 K. Four phase transitions around 140, 205, 570, and 640 K can be observed. The Raman modes are sensitive to the spin reorientation around 140 and 205 K, owing to the strong magnon-phonon coupling. The transformation around 570 K is a structural transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic phase due to an external pressure induced by the chemical substitution. The anomalies of the phonon frequencies near Néel temperature T N have been discussed in the light of the multiferroicity. Moreover, it was found that the structural transition temperature and T N of BLFTO ceramics decrease towards room temperature with increasing doping composition as a result of size mismatch between substitution and host cations.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8979
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7550
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-12-24
    Description: The magnetic structure and magnetic transport properties of hydrogen-passivated sawtooth zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons (STGNRs) are investigated theoretically. It is found that all-sized ground-state STGNRs are ferromagnetic and always feature magnetic semiconductor properties, whose spin splitting energy gap Eg changes periodically with the width of STGNRs. More importantly, for the STGNR based device, the dual spin-filtering effect with the perfect (100%) spin polarization and high-performance dual spin diode effect with a rectification ratio about 1010 can be predicted. Particularly, a highly effective spin-valve device is likely to be realized, which displays a giant magnetoresistace (MR) approaching 1010%, which is three orders magnitude higher than the value predicted based on the zigzag graphene nanoribbons and six orders magnitude higher than previously reported experimental values for the MgO tunnel junction. Our findings suggest that STGNRs might hold a significant promise for developing spintronic devices. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep07587
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-09-07
    Description: In this study, we present a new method for simulating the 3-D dynamic rupture process occurring on a non-planar fault. The method is based on the curved-grid finite-difference method (CG-FDM) proposed by Zhang & Chen and Zhang et al. to simulate the propagation of seismic waves in media with arbitrary irregular surface topography. While keeping the advantages of conventional FDM, that is computational efficiency and easy implementation, the CG-FDM also is flexible in modelling the complex fault model by using general curvilinear grids, and thus is able to model the rupture dynamics of a fault with complex geometry, such as oblique dipping fault, non-planar fault, fault with step-over, fault branching, even if irregular topography exists. The accuracy and robustness of this new method have been validated by comparing with the previous results of Day et al. , and benchmarks for rupture dynamics simulations. Finally, two simulations of rupture dynamics with complex fault geometry, that is a non-planar fault and a fault rupturing a free surface with topography, are presented. A very interesting phenomenon was observed that topography can weaken the tendency for supershear transition to occur when rupture breaks out at a free surface. Undoubtedly, this new method provides an effective, at least an alternative, tool to simulate the rupture dynamics of a complex non-planar fault, and can be applied to model the rupture dynamics of a real earthquake with complex geometry.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-10-04
    Description: Author(s): L. Z. Zhang, Z. F. Wang, S. X. Du, H.-J. Gao, and Feng Liu We predict the existence of a Dirac state in a monolayer TiB2 sheet (m-TiB2), a two-dimensional metal diboride, based on first-principles calculations. The band structure of m-TiB2 is found to be characterized with anisotropic Dirac cones with the largest Fermi velocity of 0.57×106 m/s, which is abo... [Phys. Rev. B 90, 161402] Published Fri Oct 03, 2014
    Keywords: Surface physics, nanoscale physics, low-dimensional systems
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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