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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: Shifts in species' distribution and abundance in response to climate change have been well documented, but the underpinning processes are still poorly understood. We present the results of a systematic literature review and meta-analysis investigating the frequency and importance of different mechanisms by which climate has impacted natural populations. Most studies were from temperate latitudes of North America and Europe; almost half investigated bird populations. We found significantly greater support for indirect, biotic mechanisms than direct, abiotic mechanisms as mediators of the impact of climate on populations. In addition, biotic effects tended to have greater support than abiotic factors in studies of species from higher trophic levels. For primary consumers, the impact of climate was equally mediated by biotic and abiotic mechanisms, whereas for higher level consumers the mechanisms were most frequently biotic, such as predation or food availability. Biotic mechanisms were more frequently supported in studies that reported a directional trend in climate than in studies with no such climatic change, although sample sizes for this comparison were small. We call for more mechanistic studies of climate change impacts on populations, particularly in tropical systems.
    Print ISSN: 1354-1013
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2486
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-06-12
    Description: Inhibitors against the p110delta isoform of phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) have shown remarkable therapeutic efficacy in some human leukaemias. As p110delta is primarily expressed in leukocytes, drugs against p110delta have not been considered for the treatment of solid tumours. Here we report that p110delta inactivation in mice protects against a broad range of cancers, including non-haematological solid tumours. We demonstrate that p110delta inactivation in regulatory T cells unleashes CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells and induces tumour regression. Thus, p110delta inhibitors can break tumour-induced immune tolerance and should be considered for wider use in oncology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4501086/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4501086/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ali, Khaled -- Soond, Dalya R -- Pineiro, Roberto -- Hagemann, Thorsten -- Pearce, Wayne -- Lim, Ee Lyn -- Bouabe, Hicham -- Scudamore, Cheryl L -- Hancox, Timothy -- Maecker, Heather -- Friedman, Lori -- Turner, Martin -- Okkenhaug, Klaus -- Vanhaesebroeck, Bart -- 095691/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095691/Z/11/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 12888/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 14355/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- A10200/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- A12888/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- A15965/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- BB/E009867/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- C18270/A12888/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C23338/A10200/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C23338/A15965/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jun 19;510(7505):407-11. doi: 10.1038/nature13444. Epub 2014 Jun 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] UCL Cancer Institute, Paul O'Gorman Building, University College London, 72 Huntley Street London WC1E 6DD, UK [2]. ; 1] Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK [2] [3]. ; Centre for Cancer and Inflammation, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. ; UCL Cancer Institute, Paul O'Gorman Building, University College London, 72 Huntley Street London WC1E 6DD, UK. ; Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK. ; Mary Lyon Centre, MRC Harwell, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Harwell OX11 0RD, UK. ; Piramed Pharma, 957 Buckingham Avenue, Slough, Berkshire SL1 4NL, UK. ; Cancer Signaling and Translational Oncology, Genentech Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080-4990, USA. ; 1] Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK [2].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24919154" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology ; Enzyme Activation/drug effects ; Enzyme Inhibitors/*pharmacology ; Immune Tolerance/*drug effects/immunology ; Mice ; Neoplasms/*enzymology/*immunology ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/*metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/*drug effects/enzymology/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-04-19
    Description: Chemically zoned minerals are useful records of temporal variations in ambient conditions and bulk chemical composition of the fluid from which the minerals precipitate. In fluid-buffered systems, zoning of mineral compositions is expected to reflect directly the evolution of fluid composition. Here we show that during rapid fluid-rock reactions, ultra-local equilibrium can form complex mineral zoning patterns, even when the overall system is highly fluid buffered. We reacted cleaved calcite single crystals with aqueous arsenate-phosphate solutions with molar ratios of As/(As + P) between 0.01 and 0.15 at 250 °C and water-saturated pressure. We find that complex zoning patterns and solid solution between hydroxylapatite- and arsenate-bearing hydroxylapatite that pseudomorphically replaced calcite formed within hours, and these zoning patterns were destroyed within days during secondary reactions. We propose a two-stage reaction process in the formation of the final reaction product. (1) On an hour time scale, calcite is dissolved and replaced by compositionally heterogeneous apatite. The thin reaction-interface fluid layer becomes extremely enriched in arsenic at an ultra-local scale as the reaction removes phosphate faster than the interface fluid can re-equilibrate with the bulk fluid. (2) The heterogeneous apatite is replaced by homogeneous apatite that reflects the bulk fluid composition over a longer (days) time scale through interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation. This paper highlights the complexity that can arise from ultra-local fluid composition variations due to rapid fluid-rock interaction in a short-lived fluid flow event, for example during a seismic cycle. Subsequent interpretation of complex zoning patterns as reflecting the evolution of bulk fluid would be erroneous.
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-11-27
    Description: Will networks of protected areas remain effective as the climate changes? Research into the response of bird populations to climate variance and change attempts to shed light on this issue. Results suggest that despite projected declines in many of the species investigated, most sites that are designated as EU Special Protection Areas in the UK can be expected to retain their conservation value and legal status. Nature Climate Change 3 1055 doi: 10.1038/nclimate2035
    Print ISSN: 1758-678X
    Electronic ISSN: 1758-6798
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-22
    Description: Combined microfocus XAS and XRD analysis of α-particle radiation damage haloes around thorium-containing monazite in Fe-rich biotite reveals changes in both short- and long-range order. The total α-particles flux derived from the Th and U in the monazite over 1.8 Ga was 0.022 α particles per atomic component of the monazite and this caused increasing amounts of structural damage as the monazite emitter is approached. Short-range order disruption revealed by Fe K -edge EXAFS is manifest by a high variability in Fe–Fe bond lengths and a marked decrease in coordination number. XANES examination of the Fe K -edge shows a decrease in energy of the main absorption by up to 1 eV, revealing reduction of the Fe 3+ components of the biotite by interaction with the $${}_{2}^{4}{\mathrm{He}}^{2+}$$ , the result of low and thermal energy electrons produced by the cascade of electron collisions. Changes in d spacings in the XRD patterns reveal the development of polycrystallinity and new domains of damaged biotite structure with evidence of displaced atoms due to ionization interactions and nuclear collisions. The damage in biotite is considered to have been facilitated by destruction of OH groups by radiolysis and the development of Frenkel pairs causing an increase in the trioctahedral layer distances and contraction within the trioctahedral layers. The large amount of radiation damage close to the monazite can be explained by examining the electronic stopping flux.
    Print ISSN: 0026-461X
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-8022
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-03-02
    Description: The capacity of peatlands in the northern hemisphere to provide carbon storage, maintain water quality and support northern biodiversity is threatened by a combination of climate change and inappropriate land management. Historical drainage and increasing temperatures threaten the maintenance of the high water tables required for effective peatland functioning, and there is an urgent need to develop appropriate adaptation strategies. Here we use a large-scale replicated experimental design to test the effects of artificial drainage and drain blocking upon soil moisture and cranefly (Diptera: Tipulidae) abundance. Craneflies constitute a key component of peatland biological communities; they are important herbivores and a major prey item for breeding birds. However, they are also susceptible to drought, so are at risk from future climate change. We found that cranefly abundance increased with soil moisture, in a wedge-shaped relationship; high soil moisture is a necessary condition for high cranefly abundance. Blocking drains increased both soil moisture (by 0.06 m 3  m −3 in 2009 and 0.23 m 3  m −3 in 2010) and cranefly abundance (1.3-fold in 2009, 4.5-fold in 2010), but the strength and significance of the effects varied between years. The benefits of restoring ecosystem moisture levels are likely to be greatest during dry years and at dry sites. This study provides some of the first evidence that adaptation management can potentially reduce some of the negative effects of climate change on vulnerable peatland systems. Management to maintain or increase soil moisture in peatlands can therefore be expected to increase populations of craneflies and their avian predators (which are of conservation and economic interest), but also increase the resilience of the ecosystem to future warming and increasingly frequent droughts, and improve carbon storage and water quality.
    Print ISSN: 1354-1013
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2486
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-12-02
    Description: ABSTRACT Four primary glass populations, well defined by their Sr, Ba and Y concentrations, occur in the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT), which was deposited during a supereruption of the Toba caldera complex in northern Sumatra 75 ka. Average concentrations of major and trace elements indicate a coherent, systematic variation of glass composition across populations. No clear pattern in the areal distribution of these four glass groups can be discerned. The multiple glass populations of the YTT easily distinguish it from the single homogeneous glass population of the Middle Toba Tuff (∼500 ka), as represented by its basal vitrophyre, and that of the Oldest Toba Tuff (∼800 ka), as represented by ash Layer D at the Ocean Drilling Program site 758 in the Indian Ocean.
    Print ISSN: 0267-8179
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1417
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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