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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-12-23
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 35 (2008): L07608, doi:10.1029/2008GL033294.
    Description: Here we show that labile particulate iron and manganese concentrations in the upper 500 m of the Western Subarctic Pacific, an iron-limited High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) region, have prominent subsurface maxima between 100–200 m, reaching 3 nM and 600 pM, respectively. The subsurface concentration maxima in particulate Fe are characterized by a more reduced oxidation state, suggesting a source from primary volcagenic minerals such as from the Kuril/Kamchatka margin. The systematics of these profiles suggest a consistently strong lateral advection of labile Mn and Fe from redox-mobilized labile sources at the continental shelf supplemented by a more variable source of Fe from the upper continental slope. This subsurface supply of iron from the continental margin is shallow enough to be accessible to the surface through winter upwelling and vertical mixing, and is likely a key source of bioavailable Fe to the HNLC North Pacific.
    Description: Funding from the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program (JB) and WHOI Postdoctoral Scholars program, the Richard B. Sellars Endowed Research Fund, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Endowed Fund for Innovative Research (PL).
    Keywords: Iron ; Continental margin ; HNLC
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23 (2009): GB4034, doi:10.1029/2009GB003500.
    Description: Climate change is projected to significantly alter the delivery (stratification, boundary currents, aridification of landmasses, glacial melt) of iron to the Southern Ocean. We report the most comprehensive suite of biogeochemical iron budgets to date for three contrasting sites in subantarctic and polar frontal waters south of Australia. Distinct regional environments were responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply mechanisms, with higher iron stocks and fluxes observed in surface northern subantarctic waters, where atmospheric iron fluxes were greater. Subsurface waters southeast of Tasmania were also enriched with particulate iron, manganese and aluminum, indicative of a strong advective source from shelf sediments. Subantarctic phytoplankton blooms are thus driven by both seasonal iron supply from southward advection of subtropical waters and by wind-blown dust deposition, resulting in a strong decoupling of iron and nutrient cycles. We discuss the broader global significance our iron budgets for other ocean regions sensitive to climate-driven changes in iron supply.
    Description: T.W. was supported by a BDI grant from CNRS and Région PACA, by CNRS PICS project 3604, and by the “Soutien à la mer” CSOA CNRS-INSU. P.W.B. was supported by the New Zealand FRST Coasts and Oceans OBI. This research was supported by the Australian Government Cooperative Research Centres Programme through the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems CRC (ACE CRC) and Australian Antarctic Science project 2720.
    Keywords: Iron ; Southern Ocean ; Biogeochemical budget ; Subantarctic ; Polar ; Australian sector
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2012. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 90 (2012):126–148, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2012.05.009.
    Description: The ability of paired measurements of thorium isotope activity and particle concentration to constrain rate constants of sorption reactions and particle dynamics in the ocean is examined. This study is motivated by GEOTRACES and other sampling programs where Th and particle data are gathered in various oceanic environments. Our approach relies on inversions with a model of trace metal and particle cycling in the water column. First, the model is used to simulate vertical profiles of (i) the activity of three Th isotopes (228,230,234Th) in the dissolved phase, small suspended particles, and large sinking particles, and (ii) the concentration of small and large particles. The simulated profiles are then subsampled and corrupted with noise to generate a pseudo data set. These data are combined with the model with arbitrary values of rate constants of Th adsorption, Th desorption, particle sinking, particle remineralization, and particle (dis)aggregation in an effort to recover the actual values used to generate the data. Inversions are performed using a least-squares technique with varying assumptions about data noise, data sampling, and model errors. We find that accurate and precise recovery of rate parameters is possible when all data have a relative error of less than 20%, vertical sampling is dense enough to resolve activity and concentration gradients, and model errors are negligible. Estimating cycling rates from data with larger errors and (or) at locations where model assumptions are not tenable would remain challenging. On the other hand, the paired data set would improve significantly the relative precision of rate parameters compared to that of prior estimates (⩾100%), even with current data uncertainties and significant model errors. Based on these results, we advocate the joint measurement of all three Th isotopes, 228Ra, and particles collected by in situ filtration within GEOTRACES and other sampling programs targeted at the study of particle processes in the ocean.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20 (2006): GB1006, doi:10.1029/2005GB002557.
    Description: Heightened biological activity was observed in February 1996 in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) subarctic North Pacific Ocean, a region that is thought to be iron-limited. Here we provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in the subarctic Pacific received a lateral supply of particulate iron from the continental margin off the Aleutian Islands in the winter, coincident with the observed biological bloom. Synchrotron X-ray analysis was used to describe the physical form, chemistry, and depth distributions of iron in size fractionated particulate matter samples. The analysis reveals that discrete micron-sized iron-rich hot spots are ubiquitous in the upper 200 m at OSP, more than 900 km from the closest coast. The specifics of the chemistry and depth profiles of the Fe hot spots trace them to the continental margins. We thus hypothesize that iron hot spots are a marker for the delivery of iron from the continental margin. We confirm the delivery of continental margin iron to the open ocean using an ocean general circulation model with an iron-like tracer source at the continental margin. We suggest that iron from the continental margin stimulated a wintertime phytoplankton bloom, partially relieving the HNLC condition.
    Description: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research (KP1202030) to J. K. B and by NSFATM-9987457 to I. F. The Advanced Light Source is supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences of the U.S. Department of Energy at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.
    Keywords: Iron ; Continental margin ; HNLC ; Subarctic Pacific
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Citation only. Published in Science 316: 567-570, doi: 10.1126/science.1137959
    Description: Funding was obtained primarily through the NSF, Ocean Sciences Programs in Chemical and Biological Oceanography, with additional support from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program, and other national programs, including the Australian Cooperative Research Centre program and Australian Antarctic Division.
    Keywords: Carbon flux ; Carbon sequestration ; Biological pump
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2011. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 58 (2011): 2094-2112, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2011.05.027.
    Description: This paper presents iron (Fe) profiles in the upper 1000 m from nine short-term (transect) stations and three long-term (process) stations occupied in the Australian sector of the Southern Ocean during the SAZ-Sense expedition in austral summer (January–February) 2007. Strong vertical and horizontal gradients in Fe concentrations were observed between the 18 sampled profiles (i.e. 0.09–0.63 nmol/l dissolved Fe (dFe)). Average dFe concentrations in surface waters in the northern Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ-N) West (station P1) were 0.27±0.04 nmol/l. This is lower than in the SAZ-N East region (station P3 and around) where average dFe values in the mixed layer were 0.48±0.10 nmol/l. The Polar Front (PF) station (P2) exhibited the lowest average surface Fe values (i.e. 0.22±0.02 nmol/l). Iron concentrations in deep waters down to 1000 m were more uniform (0.25–0.37 nmol/l dFe), which is in accordance with values reported elsewhere in remote waters of the Southern Ocean, but lower than those observed in the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins. A strong decoupling was observed between dFe and nutrient cycles at all stations. Particulate Fe levels were generally very low for all SAZ stations (〈0.08 – 1.38 nmol/l), with higher values observed at stations collected near Tasmania and in the SAZ-N East region. The intrusion of subtropical waters, enriched with Fe from sediments or dust further north, is thought to mediate Fe input to the SAZ-N and STZ areas, while input from below would be the main source of Fe in the PF region. We applied the tracer Fe* (Fe*= [dFe]-RFe:P × [PO4 3-], where RFe:P is the algal uptake ratio) to estimate the degree to which the water masses were Fe limited. In this study, Fe* tended to be negative and decreased with increasing depths and latitude. Positive Fe* values, indicating Fe sufficiency, were observed in the (near-)surface waters collected in the SAZ-N East and near continental sources, where primary production was higher and ultimately limited by the lack of macro-nutrients, not Fe. Micro-organisms residing in the SAZ-N West and PF on the other hand experienced negative Fe*, indicating a strong co-limitation by low silicic acid concentration and Fe supply (and light in the case of PF).
    Description: This research was supported by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (contracts SD/CA/03A, OA/00/025), the Australian Government Cooperative Research Centres Program through the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems CRC (ACE CRC) and Australian Antarctic Science project #2720.
    Keywords: Iron ; Distributions ; Macro-nutrients ; Biogeochemistry ; Southern Ocean
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Limnology and Oceanography 57 (2012): 989-1010, doi:10.4319/lo.2012.57.4.0989.
    Description: We present full-depth zonal sections of total dissolved cobalt, iron, manganese, and labile cobalt from the South Atlantic Ocean. A basin-scale plume from the African coast appeared to be a major source of dissolved metals to this region, with high cobalt concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone of the Angola Dome and extending 2500 km into the subtropical gyre. Metal concentrations were elevated along the coastal shelf, likely due to reductive dissolution and resuspension of particulate matter. Linear relationships between cobalt, N2O, and O2, as well as low surface aluminum supported a coastal rather than atmospheric cobalt source. Lateral advection coupled with upwelling, biological uptake, and remineralization delivered these metals to the basin, as evident in two zonal transects with distinct physical processes that exhibited different metal distributions. Scavenging rates within the coastal plume differed for the three metals; iron was removed fastest, manganese removal was 2.5 times slower, and cobalt scavenging could not be discerned from water mass mixing. Because scavenging, biological utilization, and export constantly deplete the oceanic inventories of these three hybrid-type metals, point sources of the scale observed here likely serve as vital drivers of their oceanic cycles. Manganese concentrations were elevated in surface waters across the basin, likely due to coupled redox processes acting to concentrate the dissolved species there. These observations of basin-scale hybrid metal plumes combined with the recent projections of expanding oxygen minimum zones suggest a potential mechanism for effects on ocean primary production and nitrogen fixation via increases in trace metal source inputs.
    Description: This research was supported US National Science Foundation Chemical Oceanography (Division of Ocean Sciences OCE-0452883, OCE-0752291, OCE-0928414, OCE-1031271), the Center for Microbial Research and Education, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the WHOI Coastal Ocean Institute, and the WHOI Ocean Life Institute.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: This paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. The definitive version was published in Environmental Chemistry 11 (2014): 10-17, doi:10.1071/EN13075.
    Description: It is a well known truism that natural materials are inhomogeneous, so analysing them on a point-by-point basis can generate a large volume of data, from which it becomes challenging to extract understanding. In this paper, we show an example in which particles taken from the ocean in two different regions (the Western Subarctic Pacific and the Australian sector of the Southern Ocean, south of Tasmania) are studied by Fe K-edge micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μXANES). The resulting set of data consists of 209 spectra from the Western Subarctic Pacific and 126 from the Southern Ocean. We show the use of principal components analysis with an interactive projection visualisation tool to reduce the complexity of the data to something manageable. The Western Subarctic Pacific particles were grouped into four main populations, each of which was characterised by spectra consistent with mixtures of 1–3 minerals: (1) Fe3+ oxyhydroxides + Fe3+ clays + Fe2+ phyllosilicates, (2) Fe3+ clays, (3) mixed-valence phyllosilicates and (4) magnetite + Fe3+ clays + Fe2+ silicates, listed in order of abundance. The Southern Ocean particles break into three clusters: (1) Fe3+-bearing clays + Fe3+ oxyhydroxides, (2) Fe2+ silicates + Fe3+ oxyhydroxides and (3) Fe3+ oxides + Fe3+-bearing clays + Fe2+ silicates, in abundance order. Although there was some overlap between the two regions, this analysis shows that the particulate Fe mineral assemblage is distinct between the Western Subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean, with potential implications for the bioavailability of particulate Fe in these two iron-limited regions. We then discuss possible advances in the methods, including automatic methods for characterising the structure of the data.
    Description: The operations of the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC02-05CH11231. Collection of samples for the VERTIGO project was supported by the US National Science Foundation Program in Chemical Oceanography to Ken Buesseler and the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program to Jim Bishop. The SAZ-SENSE project was supported by the Australian Government Cooperative Research Centres Programme. Collection of spectroscopic data by PJL was supported through the WHOI Postdoctoral Scholar Program, WHOI Independent Study Award and NSF Chemical Oceanography.
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  • 9
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    Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: © The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Biogeosciences 11 (2014): 1177-1198, doi:10.5194/bg-11-1177-2014.
    Description: The sinking of particulate organic carbon (POC) is a key component of the ocean carbon cycle and plays an important role in the global climate system. However, the processes controlling the fraction of primary production that is exported from the euphotic zone (export ratio) and how much of it survives respiration in the mesopelagic to be sequestered in the deep ocean (transfer efficiency) are not well understood. In this study, we use a three-dimensional, coupled physical–biogeochemical model (CCSM–BEC; Community Climate System Model–ocean Biogeochemical Elemental Cycle) to investigate the processes controlling the export of particulate organic matter from the euphotic zone and its flux to depth. We also compare model results with sediment trap data and other parameterizations of POC flux to depth to evaluate model skill and gain further insight into the causes of error and uncertainty in POC flux estimates. In the model, export ratios are mainly a function of diatom relative abundance and temperature while absolute fluxes and transfer efficiency are driven by mineral ballast composition of sinking material. The temperature dependence of the POC remineralization length scale is modulated by denitrification under low O2 concentrations and lithogenic (dust) fluxes. Lithogenic material is an important control of transfer efficiency in the model, but its effect is restricted to regions of strong atmospheric dust deposition. In the remaining regions, CaCO3 content of exported material is the main factor affecting transfer efficiency. The fact that mineral ballast composition is inextricably linked to plankton community structure results in correlations between export ratios and ballast minerals fluxes (opal and CaCO3), and transfer efficiency and diatom relative abundance that do not necessarily reflect ballast or direct ecosystem effects, respectively. This suggests that it might be difficult to differentiate between ecosystem and ballast effects in observations. The model's skill in reproducing sediment trap observations is equal to or better than that of other parameterizations. However, the sparseness and relatively large uncertainties of sediment trap data makes it difficult to accurately evaluate the skill of the model and other parameterizations. More POC flux observations, over a wider range of ecological regimes, are necessary to thoroughly evaluate and test model results and better understand the processes controlling POC flux to depth in the ocean.
    Description: Support for this work was provided by WHOI Ocean and Climate Change Institute and NSF grants OCE-0960880 and AGS-1048827.
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  • 10
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