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  • 2010-2014  (78,894)
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  • 1
    Keywords: soil ; pedology ; Africa
    Description / Table of Contents: The first ever SOIL ATLAS OF AFRICA uses striking maps, informative texts and stunning photographs to answer and explain these and other questions. Leading soil scientists from Europe and Africa have collaborated to produce this unique document. Using state-of-the-art computer mapping techniques, the Soil Atlas of Africa shows the changing nature of soil across the continent. It explains the origin and functions of soil, describes the different soil types that can be found in Africa and their relevance to both local and global issues. The atlas also discusses the principal threats to soil and the steps being taken to protect soil resources. The Soil Atlas of Africa is more than just a normal atlas. It presents a new and comprehensive interpretation of an often neglected natural resource. The Soil Atlas of Africa is an essential reference to a non-renewable resource that is fundamental for life on this planet.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (176 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9789279267154
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Description / Table of Contents: Magnetostratigraphy is best known as a technique that employs correlation among different stratigraphic sections using the magnetic directions defining geomagnetic polarity reversals as marker horizons. The ages of the polarity reversals provide common tie points among the sections, allowing accurate time correlation. Recently, studies of magnetic methods and the timing of geological processes have acquired a broader meaning, now referring to many types of magnetic measurements within a stratigraphic sequence. Many of these measurements provide correlation and age control not only for the older and younger boundaries of a polarity interval, but also within intervals. Thus, magnetostratigraphy no longer represents a dating tool based only on geomagnetic polarity reversals, but comprises a set of techniques that includes measurements of geomagnetic field parameters, environmental magnetism, rock-magnetic properties, radiometric dating and astronomically forced palaeoclimatic change recorded in sedimentary rocks, and key corrections to magnetic directions related to geodynamics, palaeocurrents, tectonics and diagenetic processes.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 402 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393547
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 4/M 11.0338
    In: Lecture notes in earth sciences
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XX, 642 S. , Ill., graph. Darst., Kt. , 24 cm
    ISBN: 9783642047633
    Series Statement: Lecture notes in earth sciences 133
    Classification: B..
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    London : The Geological Society
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 9/M 07.0421(373)
    In: Geological Society special publication
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 402 S.
    ISBN: 9781862393547
    Series Statement: Geological Society special publication 373
    Classification: A.3.2.
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
    Description / Table of Contents: Geological techniques are widely used in two aspects of serious criminal investigations: (1) the search for clandestine burial sites, based on near-surface geophysics or through the detection of decomposition signals and (2) the analysis of trace evidence to identify its source location or test the possible association between the trace evidence and a known location of an offence. Although geoforensics is used in such investigations world-wide there are still considerable gaps in the published literature. In addition, there is increasing concern regarding the illegal release of wastes either into the atmosphere, water courses or on to the land surface, and a growing realization that the techniques used in criminal forensics are equally useful in the investigation of environmental crime. This book bridges the gap between environmental and criminal geoforensics with conceptual, methodological and case study contributions. This demonstrates the significant potential that geoforensics holds for investigating and regulatory officers.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 273 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862393660
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Keywords: Antarctica; Gondwana; supercontinent
    Description / Table of Contents: Antarctica and supercontinent evolution: historical perspectives, recent advances and unresolved issues / Simon L. Harley, Ian C. W. Fitzsimons and Yue Zhao / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 383, 1-34, 9 October 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP383.9 --- The Mesoproterozoic Rayner Province in the Lambert Glacier area: its age, origin, isotopic structure and implications for Australia–Antarctica correlations / E. V. Mikhalsky, J. W. Sheraton, I. V. Kudriavtsev, S. A. Sergeev, V. P. Kovach, I. A. Kamenev and A. A. Laiba / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 383, 35-57, 20 May 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP383.1 --- Pb isotopic domains from the Indian Ocean sector of Antarctica: implications for past Antarctica–India connections / M. J. Flowerdew, S. Tyrrell, S. D. Boger, I. C. W. Fitzsimons, S. L. Harley, E. V. Mikhalsky and A. P. M. Vaughan / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 383, 59-72, 20 May 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP383.3 --- Boron- and phosphate-rich rocks in the Larsemann Hills, Prydz Bay, East Antarctica: tectonic implications / Edward S. Grew, Christopher J. Carson, Andrew G. Christy and Steven D. Boger / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 383, 73-94, 20 May 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP383.8 --- The c. 1000–900 Ma and c. 550–500 Ma tectonothermal events in the Prince Charles Mountains–Prydz Bay region, East Antarctica, and their relations to supercontinent evolution / Xiaochun Liu, Yue Zhao and Jianmin Hu / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 383, 95-112, 20 May 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP383.6 --- Contrasting metamorphic records and their implications for tectonic process in the central Sør Rondane Mountains, eastern Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica / Tatsuro Adachi, Tomokazu Hokada, Yasuhito Osanai, Nobuhiko Nakano, Sotaro Baba and Tsuyoshi Toyoshima / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 383, 113-133, 13 May 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP383.4 --- Possible armalcolite pseudomorph-bearing garnet–sillimanite gneiss from Skallevikshalsen, Lützow-Holm Complex, East Antarctica: Implications for ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism / Toshisuke Kawasaki, Tatsuro Adachi, Nobuhiko Nakano and Yasuhito Osanai / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 383, 135-167, 20 May 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP383.2 --- Anatectic reworking and differentiation of continental crust along the active margin of Gondwana: a zircon Hf–O perspective from West Antarctica / Chris Yakymchuk, Christine S. Siddoway, C. Mark Fanning, Rory Mcfadden, Fawna J. Korhonen and Michael Brown / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 383, 169-210, 18 June 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP383.7 --- Reconstruction of the early Mesozoic plate margin of Gondwana by U–Pb ages of detrital zircons from northern Victoria Land, Antarctica / Martin Elsner, Robert Schöner, Axel Gerdes and Reinhard Gaupp / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 383, 211-232, 16 May 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP383.5
    Pages: Online-Ressource (237 Seiten) , Illustrationen, Diagramme, Karten
    ISBN: 9781862396470
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Keywords: Antarctica; glacial geology; paleoclimatology; paleoenvironment; Southern Ocean
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction --- Antarctic Palaeoenvironments and Earth-Surface Processes in context / Michael J. Hambrey and Bethan J. Davies / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 1-5, 24 September 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.27 --- A. Palaeozoic and Mesozoic evolution of the Antarctic Continent --- The geological and tectonic evolution of the Transantarctic Mountains: a review / David H. Elliot / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 7-35, 1 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.14 --- Differential Movement across Byrd Glacier, Antarctica, as indicated by Apatite (U–Th)/He thermochronology and geomorphological analysis / D. J. Foley, E. Stump, M. van Soest, K. X. Whipple and K. V. Hodges / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 37-43, 6 August 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.25 --- Mesozoic to recent evolution of intraplate stress fields under multiple remote stresses: The case of Signy Island (South Orkney Microcontinent, Antarctica) / A. Maestro, J. López-Martínez and F. Bohoyo / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 45-65, 19 April 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.4 --- The Taylor Group (Beacon Supergroup): the Devonian sediments of Antarctica / Margaret A. Bradshaw / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 67-97, 6 August 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.23 --- Late Cretaceous dinosaurs from the James Ross Basin, West Antarctica / Marcelo A. Reguero, Claudia P. Tambussi, Rodolfo A. Coria and Sergio A. Marenssi / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 99-116, 24 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.20 --- Palaeobiogeography of Austral echinoid faunas: a first quantitative approach / Thomas Saucede, Benjamin Pierrat, Arnaud Brayard and Bruno David / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 117-127, 19 April 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.6 --- B. Cenozoic glaciation and impacts --- Taxonomic diversity of Eocene Antarctic penguins: a changing picture / Piotr Jadwiszczak / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 129-138, 24 June 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.7 --- Heat-flow determinations of basement age in small oceanic basins of the southern central Scotia Sea / P. F. Barker, L. A. Lawver and R. D. Larter / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 139-150, 19 April 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.3 --- Cenozoic landscape and ice drainage evolution in the Lambert Glacier–Amery Ice Shelf system / Duanne A. White / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 151-165, 1 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.15 --- History of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea sector of Antarctica during the Last Glacial Maximum and the last termination / Brenda L. Hall, George H. Denton, John O. Stone and Howard Conway / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 167-181, 19 April 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.5 --- Late Eocene Glaciofluvial to Glaciomarine transition in the Lambert Graben: constraints from lithofacies and mineralogy of ODP Site 1166 sediments, Prydz Bay, Antarctica / K. Strand, J. Köykkä and J. Lamminen / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 183-197, 30 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.24 --- The Offshore New Harbour Project: deciphering the Middle Miocene through Late Eocene seismic stratigraphy of Offshore New Harbour, western Ross Sea, Antarctica / Stephen F. Pekar, Marvin A. Speece, Gary S. Wilson, David S. Sunwall and Kirsty J. Tinto / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 199-213, 19 April 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.2 --- Constraints on Antarctic Ice Sheet configuration during and following the Last Glacial Maximum and its episodic contribution to sea-level rise / John B. Anderson, Alexandra E. Kirshner and Alexander R. Simms / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 215-232, 1 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.13 --- Glaciomarine sedimentation dynamics of the Abbot glacial trough of the Amundsen Sea Embayment shelf, West Antarctica / Katharina Hochmuth and Karsten Gohl / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 233-244, 24 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.21 --- Southern Ocean bioproductivity during the last glacial cycle – new detection method and decadal-scale insight from the Scotia Sea / D. Sprenk, M. E. Weber, G. Kuhn, P. Rosén, M. Frank, M. Molina-Kescher, V. Liebetrau and H.-G. Röhling / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 245-261, 30 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.17 --- Palaeoenvironmental records from the West Antarctic Peninsula drift sediments over the last 75 ka / Maryline J. Vautravers, David A. Hodell, James E. T. Channell, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Mike Hall, James Smith and Robert D. Larter / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 263-276, 5 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.12 --- Provenance of Pleistocene sediments from Site U1359 of the Wilkes Land IODP Leg 318 – evidence for multiple sourcing from the East Antarctic Craton and Ross Orogen / N. C. Pant, P. Biswas, Prakash K. Shrivastava, S. Bhattacharya, Kamlesh Verma, Mayuri Pandey and Iodp Expedition 318 Scientific Party / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 277-297, 1 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.11 --- C. Glacial and periglacial processes --- Geomorphological evidence of cold-based glacier activity in South Victoria Land, Antarctica / C. B. Atkins / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 299-318, 24 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.18 --- A review of geomorphic processes and landforms in the Dry Valleys of southern Victoria Land: implications for evaluating climate change and ice-sheet stability / D. R. Marchant, S. L. Mackay, J. L. Lamp, A. T. Hayden and J. W. Head / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 319-352, 1 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.10 --- Landscape evolution and ice-sheet behaviour in a semi-arid polar environment: James Ross Island, NE Antarctic Peninsula / Bethan J. Davies, Neil F. Glasser, Jonathan L. Carrivick, Michael J. Hambrey, John L. Smellie and Daniel Nývlt / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 353-395, 19 April 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.1 --- Windows on Antarctic soil–landscape relationships: comparison across selected regions of Antarctica / Megan R. Balks, Jerónimo López-Martínez, Sergey V. Goryachkin, Nikita S. Mergelov, Carlos E. G. R. Schaefer, Felipe N. B. Simas, Peter C. Almond, Graeme G. C. Claridge, Malcolm Mcleod and Joshua Scarrow / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 397-410, 16 May 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.9 --- Sedimentary processes in two different polar periglacial environments: Examples from Schirmacher Oasis and Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica / Rajesh Asthana, Prakash K. Shrivastava, M. Javed Beg, Ashit K. Swain, Amit Dharwadkar, Sandip K. Roy and Hari B. Srivastava / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 411-427, 30 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.22 --- Periglacial processes and landforms of the Antarctic: a review of recent studies and directions / Kevin Hall / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 429-453, 1 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.16 --- Palaeoshoreline records of glacial isostatic adjustment in the Dry Valleys region, Antarctica / Stephanie A. Konfal, T. J. Wilson and B. L. Hall / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 455-467, 30 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.26 --- Characteristic atmosphere–ocean–solid earth interactions in the Antarctic coastal and marine environment inferred from seismic and infrasound recording at Syowa Station, East Antarctica / Masaki Kanao, Alessia Maggi, Yoshiaki Ishihara, Eleonore Stutzmann, Masa-Yuki Yamamoto and Genti Toyokuni / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 469-480, 16 May 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.8 --- Evaluation of Envisat ASAR IMP imagery for snow mapping at varying spatial resolution (Deception Island, South Shetlands – Antarctica) / Carla Mora, Gonçalo Vieira and Miguel Ramos / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 381, 481-493, 24 July 2013, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP381.19
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 506 Seiten) , Illustrationen, Diagramme, Karten
    ISBN: 9781862396401
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Keywords: geological processes
    Description / Table of Contents: Rock fractures play a major role in many geological processes, such as plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and fluid transport in the earth’s crust. The present volume contains the abstracts of all presentations of the symposium „Rock Fractures in Geological Processes“, held on 26-27 November 2013 in London honouring the 60th birthday of Agust Gudmundsson, chair in Structural Geology, Royal Holloway University of London, a leading expert in the field and author of a well known text book of the same title. The symposium covered all topics related to fractures in the earth’s crust, e.g., crustal stresses, rock mechanical properties, field analysis of fractures – from joints and faults to mineral veins and dykes -, analytical, analogue and numerical models of fractures and related fluid transport, as well as the activity of faults and volcanoes including calderas, and economic aspects such as exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons and geothermal energy.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (70 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783863951412
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Description / Table of Contents: The year 2011 was the fourth year of a complex biological monitoring in the German exclusive economical zone of the North Sea, conducted by the Leibniz Institute of Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW) and commissioned and supported by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH). Phytoplankton (incl. chlorophyll a) and mesozooplankton were investigated at 12 stations, macrozoobenthos at 13 stations. The plankton was sampled on 5 cruises and the zoobenthos on 2 cruises. The phytoplankton comprised 140 taxa, most of them belonging to the diatoms. The lowest diversity was found in March (60 taxa) and the highest in August/September (95 taxa). The diversity was unusually high (63 taxa) in January 2011. We found 193 phytoplankton taxa in the whole investigation period from 2008 to 2011. The recorded species Cyclotella choctawhatcheeana was probably not reported before in the investigation area. Some hitherto relatively abundant species were not found in 2011, as Thalassiosira pacifica, Proboscia indica, Planktolyngbya limnetica, Coscinodiscus granii and Prorocentrum minimum. The spring bloom 2011 was met only at station DTEND. This became visible from the annual course of chlorophyll concentrations, which were derived from satellite data. The chlorophyll maximum was recorded in August at station ES1 with 7.77 mg/m3. Mesozooplankton analysis led to 139 taxa in 2011 with Arthropoda being the most common group. In January, the calanoids dominated, followed by the cyclopoids. In the summer, the total number of taxa grew in all regions compared to the January situation. The abundance of the "warm water" – cladoceran Penilia avirostris is temperature-dependent and declined currently. The abundance of turbellarian Alaurina composita was also declining. Three specimens of Pseudodiaptomus marinus were collected in November 2011 off Borkum, introduced by ballast water from the Indo-Pacific region. In the macrozoobenthos, 291 taxa were found in spring and autumn 2011 at 13 stations. The species number varied from 25 (AMRU2-spring) to 113 (ENTE3-autumn) in the samples. With 153 species (both campaigns added) the station in the central North Sea (ENTE3) was most diverse. The species richness was always higher in autumn than in spring. The ash free dry weight at stations ranged from 1.3 g/m² in spring to 111.5 g/m² in autumn, both values from station ENTE3. The very high value was cause by the occurrence of adults of the ocean quahog Arctica islandica. Two distinct groups of stations could be distinguished by cluster analysis based on different water depths, sediment characteristics and macrozoobenthic assemblages. 52 species from the Red List could be observed during this study, with Halcampa duodecimcirrata belonging to the category 1 (critically endangered) and two species belonging to the category 2 (endangered). | Das Jahr 2011 war das vierte Jahr, in dem das biologische Monitoring im deutschen offshore- Bereich (meistens AWZ) der Nordsee durch das IOW im Auftrage des BSH durchgeführt wurde. Es wurde das Phytoplankton (einschl. Chlorophyll a) und Mesozooplankton an 12 Stationen und das Makrozoobenthos an 13 Stationen untersucht. Das Plankton wurde auf 5 Fahrten, das Benthos lediglich auf der Frühjahrs- und Herbstfahrt beprobt. Im Phytoplankton wurden 140 Taxa gefunden, von denen die meisten zu den Kieselalgen gehörten. Bereits im Januar 2011 lag mit 63 Arten eine für den Winter ungewöhnlich hohe Diversität vor. Im gesamten Untersuchungszeitraum von 2008 bis 2011 fanden wir 193 Phytoplankton-Taxa. Die von uns nachgewiesene Art Cyclotella choctawhatcheeana wurde wahrscheinlich bisher für das Untersuchungsgebiet noch nicht berichtet. Einige zuvor recht abundante Arten wie Thalassiosira pacifica, Proboscia indica, Planktolyngbya limnetica, Coscinodiscus granii und Prorocentrum minimum wurde im Jahre 2011 nicht gefunden. Im Jahre 2011 wurde die Frühjahrsblüte mit unserer Probennahme nur an Station DTEND erfasst. Das wurde aus den Jahresgängen der Chlorophyll-Konzentration erkannt, die aus Satellitendaten abgeleitet wurden. Das Chlorophyll-Maximum registrierten wir in unseren Meßdaten erst im August an Station ES1 mit 7,77 mg/m3. Im Zooplankton wurden 139 Taxa im Jahre 2011 registriert, wobei die Arthropoden die häufigste Gruppe darstellten. Im Januar dominierten die calanoiden Copepoden, gefolgt von den Cyclopoiden. Im Sommer wuchs die Gesamtzahl der Taxa in allen Regionen gegenüber der Januar-Situation. Die Abundanz der „Warmwasser“-Cladocerenart Penilia avirostris ist temperaturabhängig und war rückläufig. Die bislang im Gebiet unbekannte Copepodenart Pseudodiaptumus marinus wurde mit drei Exemplaren in der Novemberprobe vor Borkum registriert; sie wurde mit Ballastwasser aus dem Indo-Pazifischen Raum eingetragen. Im Makrozoobenthos konnten im Frühjahr und im Herbst 2011 an 13 Stationen insgesamt 291 Taxa festgestellt werden. Die Artenzahlen schwankten zwischen den Stationen und Beprobungsterminen zwischen 25 (AMRU2-Frühjahr) und 113 (ENTE3-Herbst). Wenn beide Beprobungstermine zusammengefasst wurden, war die Station in der zentralen Nordsee (ENTE3) mit 153 Arten die artenreichste. Im Herbst waren Artenzahl und Besiedlungsdichten höher als im Frühjahr. Die aschefreie Trockenmasse an den Stationen reichte von 1.3 g/m² im Frühjahr bis 111,5 g/m² im Herbst, beises an Station ENTE3, wobei dieser hohe Wert durch das Vorkommen adulter Islandmuscheln (Arctica islandica) bedingt war. Mit Hilfe der Clusteranalyse konnten zwei Gruppen von Stationen unterschieden werden, die sich maßgeblich auf Grund der unterschiedlichen Wassertiefe und Sedimentbeschaffenheit und der einhergehenden unterschiedlichen benthischen Besiedlung voneinander trennten. 52 Arten aus der Roten Liste wurden gefunden. Davon gehörten Halcampa duodecimcirrata der Kategorie 1 (vom Aussterben bedroht), und zwei weitere Arten der Kategorie 2 (stark gefährdet) an.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (102 Seiten)
    Language: German
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  • 10
    Description / Table of Contents: The time series on species composition and biomass or abundance of phyto- and zooplankton as well as macrozoobenthos in Kiel Bight, Mecklenburg Bight and the Arkona Sea, existing since 1979, was continued in 2011. The phytoplankton spring bloom developed later than usual after the cold winter; it reached its peak at the end of march/beginning of April 2011 in the western Baltic. At least in the Arkona Sea, it was a classical diatom bloom, but formed by the unusual species Achnanthes taeniata. In Kiel Bight, we found abundant dinoflagellates (Peridiniella danica) and Dictyochophyceae (Verrucophora farcimen). Also these species are rather new and unusual in this area. In the central Baltic, Mesodinium rubrum formed a bloom in May. The cyanobacteria developed already in the first half of July and reached the maximum extent on 12 July 2011. A typical summer diatom bloom could not be found during the cruise in August 2011. In autumn 2011, dinoflagellates were dominating in the western part of the investigation area and diatoms in the Baltic Proper. The chlorophyll a concentrations were highest in spring and confirm that the spring bloom peak was nearly met. Sedimentation records of organic matter in the Arkona Basin over the year 2010 displayed sedimentation maxima in spring and autumn. Due to the low input of resuspended material the total annual flux for the single elements were in the normal range and amounted to 515 mmol C, 59 mmol N, 78 mmol Si and 3.1 mmol P m-2 a-1 at a mass flux of 57 g dry mass m-2 a-1. The total number of mesozooplankton taxa amounted to 56 from the beginning of the BSHfinanced monitoring, with most taxa found in 2011 because of salt water inflow. New neozoans were not found and even no Mnemiopsis leidyi. The sum of maximum concentrations of the taxonomic groups doubled from 2010 to 2011, but the tendency of mesozooplankton abundance since the early 1990s is still declining. Especially larvae of polychaetes increased below the halocline at Darss sill and Kadet Furrow. The concentration of calanoid copepods was about 30.000 ind.*m-3 until 2010, but dropped by 50% in from 2010 to 2011. The 124 species found in the macrozoobenthos in 2011 mark a medium to high diversity in comparison with previous years, because a long-lasting oxygen deficit did not occur in contrast to the years 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2010. The abundances varied in respect to the area between 388 and 7.400 ind./m². The biomass (ash free dry weight) ranged from 1 g/m² to 51 g/m². At the 8 monitoring stations altogether 17 species of the Red List could be observed. As example, the bivalve Macoma calcarea, threatened with extinction in German waters, was found in the Kiel Bight. 3 neozoan species were observed during the 2011 sampling, e.g. the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis in Pomeranian Bight with abundances of 300 – 1200 ind/m2. | Die 1979 begonnene HELCOM-Datenreihe der Artenzusammensetzung und Biomasse bzw. Abundanz des Phyto- und Zooplanktons sowie des Makrozoobenthos wurde im Jahre 2011 in der Kieler Bucht, Mecklenburger Bucht und Arkonasee fortgesetzt. Zur Phytoplankton-Frühjahrsblüte entwickelte sich nach dem kalten Winter 2011 später als sonst und erreichte ihren Höhepunkt in der westlichen Ostsee Ende März/Anfang April. Sie war zumindest in der Arkonasee als klassische Kieselalgenblüte (Achnanthes taeniata) ausgeprägt. In der Kieler Bucht fanden wir bereits starke Beimischungen von Dinoflagellaten (Peridiniella danica) und Dictyochophyceen (Verrucophora farcimen). Diese dominierenden Arten sind für uns relativ neu und ungewöhnlich in dem Untersuchungsgebiet. In der zentralen Ostsee bildete Mesodinium rubrum eine Blüte im Mai. Die Cyanobakterien entwickelten sich bereits in der ersten Juli- Hälfte und erreichte die maximale Ausdehnung am 12. Juli 2011. Eine in früheren Jahren gefundene Kieselalgen-Sommerblüte konnte im August 2011 nicht nachgewiesen werden. Im Herbst 2011 trat eine starke Dinoflagellaten-Dominanz in der westlichen Ostsee und eine Kieselalgenblüte in der eigentlichen Ostsee auf. Die Chlorophyll-a-Konzentrationen waren am höchsten im Frühjahr und bestätigen, dass das Maximum der Blüte recht gut getroffen sein könnte. Die Sedimentation des organischen Materials im Arkonabecken im Jahr 2011 zeigte Maxima im Frühjahr und Herbst. Wegen geringeren Eintrags von resuspendiertem Material lag der vertikale Exportfluss im Gegensatz zum Vorjahr im normalen Bereich und betrug für partikulären Kohlenstoff 515 mmol, für Stickstoff 59 mol, für Silikat 78 mmol und für Phosphor 3,1 mmol m-2 a-1 bei einem Massefluss von 57 g m-2 a-1 Trockenmasse. Die Gesamt-Anzahl der Mesozooplankton-Taxa seit Beginn des BSH-finanzierten Monitoring betrug 56, mit dem höchsten Niveau im Jahre 2011 wegen Salzwassereinstroms. Neue Neozoen wurden nicht gefunden, auch nicht Mnemiopsis leidyi. Der Rückgang der Gesamtabundanz des Mesozooplanktons im Vergleich zu den frühen 90er Jahren blieb in der Tendenz erhalten, obwohl sich der Wert gegenüber dem Vorjahr verdoppelte. Einen wesentlichen Anteil hatten die Polychaeten-Larven, die im März lokal in ungewöhnlich hohen Konzentrationen auftraten, speziell unterhalb der Haloklinen an der Darsser Schwelle und in der Kadetrinne. Bei den calanoiden Copepoden schwankte die maximale Konzentration bis zum Jahre 2010 wenig um die Maximalkonzentration von ca. 30.000 Ind.*m-3, aber sank im Jahre 2011 auf die Hälfte ab. Mit insgesamt 124 ist die Artenzahl des Makrozoobenthos im Jahr 2011 im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren höher, da ein anhaltenden Sauerstoffmangel im Gegensatz zu den Jahren 2002, 2005, 2008 und 2010 nicht beobachtet wurde. In Abhängigkeit vom Seegebiet schwankten die Individuendichten zwischen 388 und 7.400 Ind./m². Bei den Biomassen wurden ebenfalls die zu erwartenden Unterschiede (1 g bis 51 g AFTM/m²) beobachtet. An den 8 Monitoringstationen konnten insgesamt 17 Arten der Roten Liste nachgewiesen werden. Mit Macoma calcarea wurde unter anderem eine im Gebiet sehr selten zu beobachtende Muschel in der Kieler Bucht lebend festgestellt. Der Anteil an Neozoen war 2011 mit 3 Arten gering. Davon ist der Polychaet Marenzelleria viridis hervorzuheben, der in der Pommernbucht zum Teil erhebliche Abundanzen (300 bis 1.200 Ind./m²) erreichte.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (86 Seiten)
    Language: German
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