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  • 2010-2014  (1,050)
  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Dordrecht [u.a.] : Springer
    Associated volumes
    Call number: AWI G5-10-0074 ; M 11.0047
    In: Developments in paleoenvironmental research
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1: High-resolution Paleoclimatology - R. Bradley What is high-resolution paleoclimatology? What are its major achievements? What opportunities and challenges does it now face? What should dendroclimatology's role be in this? Chapter 2: Dendroclimatology in high-resolution Paleoclimatology - M. K. Hughes, H. F. Diaz and Th. W. Swetnam An overview of the development of dendroclimatology and an introduction to the questions posed in this book. Scientific bases of dendroclimatology Chapter 3: How well understood are the processes that create tree-ring records? - G. Vaganov Starting at the most basic level of the environmental control of tree-ring formation, do we have the necessary biological and ecophysiological understanding of this to support inferences about climate variability from tree rings? What are the weak points of this understanding and how might they be strengthened? Chapter 4: The state of the art of quantitative methods in dendroclimatology - E. Cook How sound are the quantitative techniques commonly used in dendroclimatology, in chronology building, identification and reconstruction of climate variables and the checking of these reconstructions? Are they appropriate to the material being analyzed and to the climatological problems being addressed? How might they be improved? Chapter 5: Detecting low-frequency change using tree rings - K. Briffa What limits the ability of tree-ring records to faithfully record climate variability at low frequencies (multi-centennial to millennial)? How might those limitations be overcome, if at all? What are the advantages and limitations of older and more novel approaches? What are the implications of these limitations? Reconstruction of climate patterns and values relative to today's climate Chapter 6: Dendroclimatology at regional and continental scales - R. Villalba What have been the major contributions of dendroclimatology to climatology so far? In what regions and for which climate problems is exciting progress now being made? What next? Chapter 7: Dendroclimatology at hemispheric and global scales - M. K. Hughes and M. Mann What are the achievements of dendroclimatology as applied at hemispheric and global scales climate patterns, circulation indices and large-scale means? What are the limitations of this approach? How might they be overcome? How might dendroclimatology contribute to the study of central pressing problems such as "How big is climate sensitivity? How has the last century, and especially recent decades, compared with earlier centuries? How faithful a representation of variability in recent centuries does the 20th century instrumental record give? Particular attention will be given to: a) identifying the most robust findings; and b) the most serious limitations. Chapter 8: Dendroclimatology, dendrohydrology and water resources management - C. Woodhouse and D. Meko How may dendroclimatology contribute to the study of water resources? How may it be used to inform modern public and decision-maker expectations of climate variability? Chapter 9: Dendroclimatology and the ecosystem impacts of climate - Th. W. SwetnamHow has dendroclimatology contributed to disturbance ecology? What is the significance of the recent changes in tree-growth-climate relationships observed in some regions, not only for dendroclimatology, but also for the understanding of the impacts of climate variability and change on ecosystems? Chapter 10: Dendroclimatology and the understanding of the interactions between climate variability and ancient human societies - D. Stahle and J. DeanHow has dendroclimatology contributed to understanding of the relationships between climate variability and societies in ancient times? Chapter 11: Tree rings and climate- sharpening the focus - M. K. Hughes, H. F. Diaz and Th. W. Swetnam What has been learned, using tree rings, about natural climate variability and its environmental and social impacts? What are the most significant strengths and weaknesses of dendroclimatology and the needs of, and opportunities for, future work.
    Description / Table of Contents: This volume presents an overview of the current state of dendroclimatology, its contributions over the last 30 years, and its future potential. The material included is useful not only to those who generate tree-ring records of past climate-dendroclimatologists, but also to users of their results - climatologists, hydrologists, ecologists and archeologists.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xii, 365 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 9781402040108
    Series Statement: Developments in paleoenvironmental research 11
    Classification: A.3.2.
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: Part I Introductory Section. - 1 High-Resolution Paleoclimatology / Raymond S. Bradley. - 2 Dendroclimatology in High-Resolution Paleoclimatology / Malcolm K. Hughes. - Part II Scientific Bases of Dendroclimatology. - 3 How Well Understood Are the Processes that Create Dendroclimatic Records? A Mechanistic Model of the Climatic Control on Conifer Tree-Ring Growth Dynamics / Eugene A. Vaganov, Kevin J. Anchukaitis, and Michael N. Evans. - 4 Uncertainty, Emergence, and Statistics in Dendrochronology / Edward R. Cook and Neil Pederson. - 5 A Closer Look at Regional Curve Standardization of Tree-Ring Records: Justification of the Need, a Warning of Some Pitfalls, and Suggested Improvements in Its Application / Keith R. Briffa and Thomas M. Melvin. - 6 Stable Isotopes in Dendroclimatology: Moving Beyond ‘Potential’ / Mary Gagen, Danny McCarroll, Neil J. Loader, and Iain Robertson. - Part III Reconstruction of Climate Patterns and Values Relative to Today’s Climate. - 7 Dendroclimatology from Regional to Continental Scales: Understanding Regional Processes to Reconstruct Large-Scale Climatic Variations Across the Western Americas / Ricardo Villalba, Brian H. Luckman, Jose Boninsegna,Rosanne D. D’Arrigo, Antonio Lara, Jose Villanueva-Diaz, Mariano Masiokas, Jaime Argollo, Claudia Soliz, Carlos LeQuesne, David W. Stahle, Fidel Roig, Juan Carlos Aravena, Malcolm K. Hughes, Gregory Wiles, Gordon Jacoby, Peter Hartsough, Robert J.S. Wilson, Emma Watson, Edward R. Cook, Julian Cerano-Paredes, Matthew Therrell, Malcolm Cleaveland, Mariano S. Morales, Nicholas E. Graham, Jorge Moya, Jeanette Pacajes, Guillermina Massacchesi, Franco Biondi, Rocio Urrutia, and Guillermo Martinez Pastur. - Part IV Applications of Dendroclimatology. - 8 Application of Streamflow Reconstruction to Water Resources Management / David M. Meko and Connie A. Woodhouse. - 9 Climatic Inferences from Dendroecological Reconstructions / Thomas W. Swetnam and Peter M. Brown. - 10 North American Tree Rings, Climatic Extremes, and Social Disasters / David W. Stahle and Jeffrey S. Dean. - Part V Overview. - 11 Tree Rings and Climate: Sharpening the Focus / Malcolm K. Hughes, Henry F. Diaz, and Thomas W. Swetnam. - Index.
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: AWI Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: Human trafficking is one of the most widely spread and fastest growing crimes in the world. However, despite the scope of the problem, the important human rights issues at stake and the professed intent of governments around the world to put an end to "modern day slavery", there is very little that is actually known about the nature of human trafficking and those most at risk as potential victims. This is due in large part to the difficulty in collecting reliable and statistically useful data. In this paper we present the results of a pilot study run in rural Vietnam with the aim of overcoming these data issues. Rather than attempt to identify victims themselves, we rely on the form rural migration often takes in urbanizing developing countries to instead identify households that were sources of trafficking victims. This allows us to construct a viable sampling frame, on which we conduct a survey using novel techniques such as anchoring vignettes, indirect sampling, list randomization and social network analysis to construct a series of empirically valid estimates that can begin to shed light on the problem of human trafficking.
    Keywords: J47 ; J61 ; J82 ; K37 ; K42 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; human trafficking ; labor migration ; Vietnam ; household survey ; indirect sampling ; social network analysis ; pilot study ; public policy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The successful flight of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE)-3 has further demonstrated the potential value of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This technology development effort is funded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). This paper provides an overview of a multi-year HIAD technology development effort, detailing the projects completed to date and the additional testing planned for the future.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NF1676L-16795 , International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW-10); 17-21 Jun. 2013; San Jose, CA; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-10-08
    Description: We report the detection of pulsed gamma rays from the Crab pulsar at energies above 100 giga-electron volts (GeV) with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The detection cannot be explained on the basis of current pulsar models. The photon spectrum of pulsed emission between 100 mega-electron volts and 400 GeV is described by a broken power law that is statistically preferred over a power law with an exponential cutoff. It is unlikely that the observation can be explained by invoking curvature radiation as the origin of the observed gamma rays above 100 GeV. Our findings require that these gamma rays be produced more than 10 stellar radii from the neutron star.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉VERITAS Collaboration -- Aliu, E -- Arlen, T -- Aune, T -- Beilicke, M -- Benbow, W -- Bouvier, A -- Bradbury, S M -- Buckley, J H -- Bugaev, V -- Byrum, K -- Cannon, A -- Cesarini, A -- Christiansen, J L -- Ciupik, L -- Collins-Hughes, E -- Connolly, M P -- Cui, W -- Dickherber, R -- Duke, C -- Errando, M -- Falcone, A -- Finley, J P -- Finnegan, G -- Fortson, L -- Furniss, A -- Galante, N -- Gall, D -- Gibbs, K -- Gillanders, G H -- Godambe, S -- Griffin, S -- Grube, J -- Guenette, R -- Gyuk, G -- Hanna, D -- Holder, J -- Huan, H -- Hughes, G -- Hui, C M -- Humensky, T B -- Imran, A -- Kaaret, P -- Karlsson, N -- Kertzman, M -- Kieda, D -- Krawczynski, H -- Krennrich, F -- Lang, M J -- Lyutikov, M -- Madhavan, A S -- Maier, G -- Majumdar, P -- McArthur, S -- McCann, A -- McCutcheon, M -- Moriarty, P -- Mukherjee, R -- Nunez, P -- Ong, R A -- Orr, M -- Otte, A N -- Park, N -- Perkins, J S -- Pizlo, F -- Pohl, M -- Prokoph, H -- Quinn, J -- Ragan, K -- Reyes, L C -- Reynolds, P T -- Roache, E -- Rose, H J -- Ruppel, J -- Saxon, D B -- Schroedter, M -- Sembroski, G H -- Senturk, G D -- Smith, A W -- Staszak, D -- Tesic, G -- Theiling, M -- Thibadeau, S -- Tsurusaki, K -- Tyler, J -- Varlotta, A -- Vassiliev, V V -- Vincent, S -- Vivier, M -- Wakely, S P -- Ward, J E -- Weekes, T C -- Weinstein, A -- Weisgarber, T -- Williams, D A -- Zitzer, B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 7;334(6052):69-72. doi: 10.1126/science.1208192.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-01-11
    Description: Background: Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR) of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is controlled by Rps genes. However, little is known regarding the Rps-induced molecular responses to P. sojae and how they actually overlap. We thus sequenced, analyzed, and compared the transcriptomes of 10 near isogenic lines (NILs), each with a unique Rps gene/allele, and the susceptible parent Williams, pre- and post-inoculation with the pathogen. Results: A total of 4,330 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in Williams versus 2,014 to 5,499 DEGs in individual NILs upon inoculation with the pathogen. Comparisons of the DEGs between the NILs and Williams identified incompatible interaction genes (IIGs) and compatible interaction genes (CIGs). Hierarchical cluster and heatmap analyses consistently grouped the NILs into three clusters: Cluster I (Rps1-a), Cluster II (Rps1-b, 1-c and 1-k) and Cluster III (Rps3-a, 3-b, 3-c, 4, 5, and 6), suggesting an overlap in Rps-induced defense signaling among certain NILs. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed associations between members of the WRKY family and incompatible reactions and between a number of phytohormone signaling pathways and incompatible/compatible interactions. These associations appear to be distinguished according to the NIL clusters. Conclusions: This study characterized genes and multiple branches of putative regulatory networks associated with resistance to P. sojae in ten soybean NILs, and depicted functional "fingerprints" of individual Rps-mediated resistance responses through comparative transcriptomic analysis. Of particular interest are dramatic variations of detected DEGs, putatively involved in ethylene (ET)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, (reactive oxygen species) ROS-, and (MAP-kinase) MAPK- signaling, among these soybean NILs, implicating their important roles of these signaling in differentiating molecular defense responses. We hypothesize that different timing and robustness in defense signaling to the same pathogen may be largely responsible for such variations.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2164
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-03-27
    Description: Langmuir DOI: 10.1021/la304312y
    Print ISSN: 0743-7463
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5827
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
    In:  Supplement to: Hughes, Kevin A; Fretwell, Peter; Rae, James William B; Holmes, Keith; Fleming, Andrew (2011): Untouched Antarctica: mapping a finite and diminishing environmental resource. Antarctic Science, 23(06), 537-548,
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: Globally, areas categorically known to be free of human visitation are rare, but still exist in Antarctica. Such areas may be among the most pristine locations remaining on Earth and, therefore, be valuable as baselines for future comparisons with localities impacted by human activities, and as sites preserved for scientific research using increasingly sophisticated future technologies. Nevertheless, unvisited areas are becoming increasingly rare as the human footprint expands in Antarctica. Therefore, an understanding of historical and contemporary levels of visitation at locations across Antarctica is essential to a) estimate likely cumulative environmental impact, b) identify regions that may have been impacted by non-native species introductions, and c) inform the future designation of protected areas under the Antarctic Treaty System. Currently, records of Antarctic tourist visits exist, but little detailed information is readily available on the spatial and temporal distribution of national governmental programme activities in Antarctica. Here we describe methods to fulfil this need. Using information within field reports and archive and science databases pertaining to the activities of the United Kingdom as an illustration, we describe the history and trends in its operational footprint in the Antarctic Peninsula since c. 1944. Based on this illustration, we suggest that these methodologies could be applied productively more generally.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 235 data points
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