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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-09-17
    Description: Cold-water corals are widely distributed along the Atlantic continental margin with varying growth patterns in relation to their specific environment. Here, we investigate the long-term development of cold-water corals that once thrived on a low-latitude (17°40′N) cold-water coral mound in the Banda Mound Province off Mauritania during the last glacial–interglacial cycle. U/Th dates obtained from 20 specimens of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa, revealed three distinct periods of coral growth during the last glacial at 65 to 57 kyr BP, 45 to 32 kyr BP and 14 kyr BP, thus comprising the cool periods of Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS) 2–4. These coral growth periods occur during periods of increased productivity in the region, emphasizing that productivity seems to be the major steering factor for coral growth off Mauritania, which is one of the major upwelling regions in the world. This pattern differs from the well studied coral mounds off Ireland, where the current regime predominantly influences the prosperity of the cold-water corals. Moreover, coral growth off Ireland takes place during rather warm interglacial and interstadial periods, whereas off Mauritania coral growth is restricted to glacial and stadial periods. However, the on-mound sedimentation patterns off Mauritania largely resemble the observations reported from the Irish mounds. The bulk of the preserved sediments derives from periods of coral growth, whereas during periods without corals hardly any net sedimentation or mound growth took place.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-09-21
    Description: Ecological and taxonomic study of the mollusk-rich fauna of the Golfe d’Arguin, North Mauritania, investigates the various environmental influences affecting this tropical shelf. The upwelling of nutrient-rich waters leads to a highly productive environment under tropical conditions. The resulting mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediment contains a large portion of calcareous components produced by heterotrophic organisms— e.g., mollusks, foraminifers, worms, barnacles—that are reworked on the open shelf. On the basis of mollusk assemblages, six taphocoenoses are defined, all being characterized by a mixed fauna of tropical (e.g., Tellina densestriata), subtropical (e.g., Macoma cumana) and temperate (e.g., Spisula subtruncata) species. Differences between the assemblages are related to the medium—grain size ranging from mud to gravel—that results from local hydrodynamic conditions and water depth. Among carbonate grains, Donax burnupi shells are very abundant in the swellexposed, northern part of the Golfe d’Arguin and reflect the tropical to subtropical, high-energy, and high-nutrient waters. Mollusk assemblages are demonstrated to be a sensitive tool for deciphering complex environmental conditions in sedimentary archives.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-01-06
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-06-20
    Description: Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of two corals from the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, Røst Reef, north of the Arctic circle off Norway. Colonies of each of the two species that build the reef, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were collected alive at 350 m depth using a submersible. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and trace element compositions were studied. 210Pb and 226Ra differ in the way they are incorporated into coral skeletons. Hence, to assess growth rates, we considered the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb, as well as the increase in 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra and contamination with 210Pb associated with Mn-Fe coatings that we were unable to remove completely from the oldest parts of the skeletons. 226Ra activity was similar in both coral species, so, assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time, we used the 210Pb-226Ra chronology to calculate growth rates. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata was 31 yr with an average linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr−1 (2.6 polyps per year). Despite cleaning, a correction for Mn-Fe oxide contamination was required for the oldest part of the colony; this correction corroborated our radiocarbon date of 40 yr and a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr−1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in aquarium experiments under optimal growth conditions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, yet the nature and physical properties of their energy sources are far from understood. Very important clues, however, can be inferred by studying the afterglows of these events. We present optical and X-ray observations of GRB 130831A obtained by Swift, Chandra, Skynet, Reionization And Transients Infra-Red camera, Maidanak, International Scientific Optical-Observation Network, Nordic Optical Telescope, Liverpool Telescope and Gran Telescopio Canarias. This burst shows a steep drop in the X-ray light curve at asymptotically equal to 10(exp 5) s after the trigger, with a power-law decay index of alpha that is approximately 6. Such a rare behaviour cannot be explained by the standard forward shock (FS) model and indicates that the emission, up to the fast decay at 10(exp 5) s, must be of internal origin, produced by a dissipation process within an ultrarelativistic outflow. We propose that the source of such an outflow, which must produce the X-ray flux for an asymptotically equal to 1 d in the cosmological rest frame, is a newly born magnetar or black hole. After the drop, the faint X-ray afterglow continues with a much shallower decay. The optical emission, on the other hand, shows no break across the X-ray steep decrease, and the late-time decays of both the X-ray and optical are consistent. Using both the X-ray and optical data, we show that the emission after an asymptotically equal to 10(exp 5) scan be explained well by the FS model. We model our data to derive the kinetic energy of the ejecta and thus measure the efficiency of the central engine of a GRB with emission of internal origin visible for a long time. Furthermore, we break down the energy budget of this GRB into the prompt emission, the late internal dissipation, the kinetic energy of the relativistic ejecta,and compare it with the energy of the associated supernova, SN 2013 fu.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41237 , Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (ISSN 0035-8711) (e-ISSN 1365-2966); 455; 1; 1027-1042
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-26
    Description: A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, two hands, a neck, and a head. The torso extends along a primary axis and presents a pair of shoulders. The pair of arms movably extend from a respective one of the pair of shoulders. Each of the arms has a plurality of arm joints. The neck movably extends from the torso along the primary axis. The neck has at least one neck joint. The head movably extends from the neck along the primary axis. The head has at least one head joint. The shoulders are canted toward one another at a shrug angle that is defined between each of the shoulders such that a workspace is defined between the shoulders.
    Keywords: Cybernetics, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-07-01
    Description: Manganoquadratite, ideally AgMnAsS3, is a new mineral from the Uchucchacua polymetallic deposit, Oyon district, Catajambo, Lima Department, Peru. It occurs as dark gray, anhedral to subhedral grains up 0.5 mm across, closely associated with alabandite, Mn-rich calcite, Mn-rich sphalerite, proustite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, tennantite, argentotennantite, stannite, and other unnamed minerals of the system Pb-Ag-Sb-Mn-As-S. Manganoquadratite is opaque with a metallic luster and possesses a reddish-brown streak. It is brittle, the Vickers microhardness (VHN10) is 81 kg/mm2 (range 75–96) (corresponding Mohs hardness of 2–2½). The calculated density is 4.680 g/cm3 (on the basis of the empirical formula). In plane-polarized reflected light, manganoquadratite is moderately bireflectant and very weakly pleochroic from dark gray to a blue gray. Internal reflections are absent. Between crossed polars, the mineral is anisotropic, without characteristic rotation tints. Reflectance percentages (Rmin and Rmax) for the four standard COM wavelengths are 29.5, 31.8 (471.1 nm), 28.1, 30.5 (548.3 nm), 27.3, 29.3 (586.6 nm), and 26.0, 28.2 (652.3 nm), respectively.Manganoquadratite is tetragonal, space group P4322, with unit-cell parameters: a = 5.4496(5), c = 32.949(1) Å, V = 978.5(1) Å3, c:a = 6.046, Z = 8. The structure, refined to R1 = 0.0863 for 907 reflections with Fo 〉 4σ(Fo), consists of a stacking along [001] of alabandite-like Mn2S2 layers connected to each to other by a couple of AgAsS2 sheets where As3+ forms typical AsS3 groups, whereas Ag+ cations are fivefold coordinated. The six strongest lines in the observed X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in Å (I/I0) (hkl)] are: 3.14 (60) (116), 2.739 (50) (0 0 12), 2.710 (100) (200), 1.927(70) (2 0 12 + 220), 1.645 (25) (3 0 16), and 1.573 (20) (22 12).Electron microprobe analyses gave the chemical formula (on the basis of six atoms) (Ag0.95Cu0.05)∑=1.00 (Mn0.96Pb0.04)∑=1.00(As0.87Sb0.14)∑=1.01S2.99, leading to the simplified formula AgMnAsS3.The name was chosen to indicate the close analogy of the formula and unit-cell dimensions with quadratite, Ag(Cd,Pb)(As,Sb)S3. The new mineral and mineral name have been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification, IMA 2011-008.
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-11-14
    Description: The young (~16 Myr) pre-main-sequence star in Sco–Cen 1SWASP J140747.93–394542.6, hereafter referred to as J1407, underwent a deep eclipse in 2007 April, bracketed by several shallower eclipses in the surrounding 54 d. This has been interpreted as the first detection of an eclipsing ring system circling a substellar object (dubbed J1407b). We report on a search for this companion with Sparse Aperture Mask imaging and direct imaging with both the UT4 VLT and Keck telescopes. Radial velocity measurements of J1407 provide additional constraints on J1407b and on short period companions to the central star. Follow-up photometric monitoring using the Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes (PROMPT)-4 and ROAD observatories during 2012–2014 has not yielded any additional eclipses. Large regions of mass–period space are ruled out for the companion. For circular orbits the companion period is constrained to the range 3.5–13.8 yr ( a ~= 2.2–5.6 au), and stellar masses (〉80 M Jup ) are ruled out at 3 significance over these periods. The complex ring system appears to occupy more than 0.15 of its Hill radius, much larger than its Roche radius and suggesting a ring structure in transition. Further, we demonstrate that the radial velocity of J1407 is consistent with membership in the Upper Cen–Lup subgroup of the Sco–Cen association, and constraints on the rotation period and projected rotational velocity of J1407 are consistent with a stellar inclination of i * ~= 68° ± 10°.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Environmental Science & Technology DOI: 10.1021/es203122z
    Print ISSN: 0013-936X
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5851
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-07-02
    Description: Environmental Science & Technology DOI: 10.1021/es200989n
    Print ISSN: 0013-936X
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5851
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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