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  • 2010-2014  (11)
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  • 1
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    In:  [Talk] In: Society of Exploration Geophysicists Annual Meeting 2013, 9.2013, Houston, Texas, USA .
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
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  • 5
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    In:  [Poster] In: Geological Society of America Annual Meeting 2013, 09.06.-10.06.2013, Denver, CO, USA .
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
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  • 6
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    In:  [Poster] In: AGU Fall Meeting 2011, 05.-09.12.2011, San Francisco, USA .
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Long-term bed rest (BR), a model of spaceflight, results in a decrease in aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. The strongest BR-induced effects on exercise appear to be centrally-mediated, but longer BR durations may result in peripheral adaptations (e.g., decreased mitochondrial and capillary density) which are likely to influence exercise responses. PURPOSE: To measure tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) and hydrogen ion concentration ([H+]) in the vastus lateralis (VL) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during cycle ergometry before and after . 30 d of BR. METHODS: Eight subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to volitional fatigue 7 d before (pre-BR) and at the end or 1 day after BR (post-BR). NIRS spectra were collected from a sensor adhered to the skin overlying the VL. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured by open circuit spirometry. Blood volume (BV) was measured before and after BR using the carbon monoxide rebreathing technique. Changes in pre- and post-BR SO2 and [H+] data were compared using mixed model analyses. BV and peak exercise data were compared using paired t-tests. RESULTS: BV (pre-BR: 4.3+/-0.3, post-BR: 3.7+/-0.2 L, mean+/-SE, p=.01) and peak VO2 (pre-BR: 1.98+/-0.24, post-BR: 1.48 +/-0.21 L/min, p〈.01) were reduced after BR. As expected, SO2 decreased with exercise before and after BR. However, SO2 was lower post compared with pre-BR throughout exercise, including at peak exercise (pre-BR: 50+/-3, post-BR: 43+/-4%, p=.01). After BR, [H+] was higher at the start of exercise and did not increase at the same rate as pre-BR. Peak [H+] was not different from pre to post-BR (pre-BR: 36+/-2; post-BR: 38+/-2 nmol/L). CONCLUSIONS: Lower SO2 during exercise suggests that oxygen extraction in the VL is higher after BR, perhaps due to lower circulating blood volume. The higher [H+] after BR suggests a greater reliance upon glycolysis during submaximal exercise, although [H+] at peak exercise was unchanged. Taken together, these data suggest that longer duration BR induces a number of changes that result in peripheral adaptations which contribute to cardiovascular and muscular deconditioning as measured by NIRS-derived SO2 and [H+] in the VL and may contribute to lower post-BR exercise tolerance. Supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA NCC 9-58
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-22052 , 82nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association; 8-12 May 2011; Anchorage, AK; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Low load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (LBFR) causes muscle hypertrophy that may be stimulated by the local ischemic environment created by the cuff pressure. However, local blood flow (BF) during such exercise is not well understood. PURPOSE: To characterize femoral artery BF and cardiac output (CO) during leg press exercise (LP) performed at a high load (HL) and low load (LL) with different levels of cuff pressure. METHODS: Eleven subjects (men/women 4/7, age 31.4+/-12.8 y, weight 68.9+/-13.2 kg, mean+/-SD) performed 3 sets of supine left LP to fatigue with 90 s of rest in 4 conditions: HL (%1-RM/cuff pressure: 80%/0); LL (20%/0); LBFR(sub DBP) (20%/1.3 x diastolic blood pressure, BP); LBFR(sub SBP) (20%/1.3 x supine systolic BP). The cuff remained inflated throughout the LBFR exercise sessions. Artery diameter, velocity time integral (VTI), and stroke volume (SV) were measured using Doppler ultrasound at rest and immediately after each set of exercise. Heart rate (HR) was monitored using a 3-lead ECG. BF was calculated as VTI x vessel cross-sectional area. CO was calculated as HR x SV. The data obtained after each set of exercise were averaged and used for analyses. Multi-level modeling was used to determine the effect of exercise condition on dependent variables. Statistical significance was set a priori at p〈 0.05. RESULTS: Artery diameter did not change from baseline. BF increased (p〈0.05) after exercise in each condition except LBFR(sub SBP) in the order of HL (12.73+/-1.42 cm3,mean+/-SE) 〉 LL (9.92+/-0.82 cm3) 〉 LBFR(sub dBP)(6.47+/-0.79 cm3) 〉 LBFR(sub SBP) (3.51+/-0.59 cm3). Blunted exercise induced increases occurred in HR, SV, and CO after LBFR compared to HL and LL. HR increased 45% after HL and LL and 28% after LBFR (p〈0.05), but SV increased (p〈0.05) only after HL. Consequently, the increase (p〈0.05) in CO was greater in HL and LL (approximately 3 L/min) than in LBFR (approximately 1 L/min). CONCLUSION: BF during LBFR(sub SBP) was 1/3 of that observed in LL, which supports the hypothesis that local ischemia stimulates the LBFR hypertrophic response. As the cuff did not compress the artery, the ischemia may have occurred because of the blunted rise in CO or because arterial BP cannot overcome the cuff pressure. As LBFR(sub DBP) effectively reduced BF and CO with cuff pressures less than systolic BP, future studies should investigate the hypertrophic potential of LBFR at even lower cuff pressures.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-25005 , AcSM Annual Meeting; 30 Msay - 2 Jun. 2012; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-12-31
    Description: Swarms of the salp Thalia democratica periodically occur off southeast Australia following the austral spring bloom of phytoplankton. In October 2008 a filament of upwelled water was advected south by the adjacent East Australian Current and formed a 30 km diameter cold-core eddy (CCE). The three-dimensional structure of a subsurface swarm of T. democratica within the eddy was examined using both oblique and vertical hauls and an optical plankton counter (OPC) deployed on a towed body. The CCE displayed distinct uplift of the nutricline and elevated fluorescence. Net samples show the zooplankton community was dominated by T. democratica, comprising 73%–88% of zooplankton abundance. The size distribution of T. democratica measured from net samples was 0.5–5 mm and was used to interpret the OPC transects, which showed the swarm formed a 15 km diameter disc located 20–40 m deep in the center of the eddy. The maximum salp abundance was in the pycnocline and coincided with the subsurface fluorescence maximum. The mean abundance of T. democratica size particles within the disc was 5003 individuals m−3 (ind. m−3), contrasted with only 604 ind. m−3 at the outer edge of the eddy. The vertically concentrated and horizontally constrained disc-shaped salp swarm occurred at the interface of salp-bearing inner shelf water and nutrient-rich upwelled water in a CCE. The physical processes that formed the CCE on the inshore edge of the western boundary current led to the largest density of salps recorded.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-08-28
    Description: The Tasman Sea is unique - characterised by a strong seasonal western boundary current that breaks down into a complicated field of mesoscale eddies almost immediately after separating from the coast. Through a 16-year analysis of Tasman Sea eddies, we identify a region along the southeast Australian coast which we name ‘Eddy Avenue’ where eddies have higher sea level anomalies, faster rotation and greater sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a anomalies. The density of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies within Eddy Avenue is 23% and 16% higher respectively than the broader Tasman Sea. We find that Eddy Avenue cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies have more strongly differentiated biological properties than those of the broader Tasman Sea, as a result of larger anticyclonic eddies formed from Coral Sea water depressing chl. a concentrations, and for coastal cyclonic eddies due to the entrainment of nutrient-rich shelf waters. Cyclonic eddies within Eddy Avenue have almost double the chlorophyll a (0.35 mg m−3) of anticyclonic eddies (0.18 mg m−3). The average chlorophyll a concentration for cyclonic eddies is 16% higher in Eddy Avenue and 28% lower for anticyclonic eddies when compared to the Tasman Sea. With a strengthening East Australian Current, the propagation of these eddies will have significant implications for heat transport and the entrainment and connectivity of plankton and larval fish populations.
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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