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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-11-02
    Description: The Journal of Physical Chemistry B DOI: 10.1021/jp409132e
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5207
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2010-10-29
    Description: Meiotic recombinations contribute to genetic diversity by yielding new combinations of alleles. Recently, high-resolution recombination maps were inferred from high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data using linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns that capture historical recombination events. The use of these maps has been demonstrated by the identification of recombination hotspots and associated motifs, and the discovery that the PRDM9 gene affects the proportion of recombinations occurring at hotspots. However, these maps provide no information about individual or sex differences. Moreover, locus-specific demographic factors like natural selection can bias LD-based estimates of recombination rate. Existing genetic maps based on family data avoid these shortcomings, but their resolution is limited by relatively few meioses and a low density of markers. Here we used genome-wide SNP data from 15,257 parent-offspring pairs to construct the first recombination maps based on directly observed recombinations with a resolution that is effective down to 10 kilobases (kb). Comparing male and female maps reveals that about 15% of hotspots in one sex are specific to that sex. Although male recombinations result in more shuffling of exons within genes, female recombinations generate more new combinations of nearby genes. We discover novel associations between recombination characteristics of individuals and variants in the PRDM9 gene and we identify new recombination hotspots. Comparisons of our maps with two LD-based maps inferred from data of HapMap populations of Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe (CEU) and Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI) reveal population differences previously masked by noise and map differences at regions previously described as targets of natural selection.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kong, Augustine -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Masson, Gisli -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Walters, G Bragi -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Gylfason, Arnaldur -- Kristinsson, Kari Th -- Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A -- Frigge, Michael L -- Helgason, Agnar -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stefansson, Kari -- England -- Nature. 2010 Oct 28;467(7319):1099-103. doi: 10.1038/nature09525.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. kong@decode.is〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20981099" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Chromosomes, Human/*genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Europe/ethnology ; Exons/genetics ; Female ; Genetics, Population ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Heterozygote ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics ; Humans ; Linkage Disequilibrium/genetics ; Male ; Meiosis/genetics ; Nigeria/ethnology ; Pedigree ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Recombination, Genetic/*genetics ; Sample Size ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; *Sex Characteristics ; Utah
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-04-12
    Description: Author(s): Andrea Scagliarini, Ármann Gylfason, and Federico Toschi We present a numerical study of Rayleigh-Bénard convection disturbed by a longitudinal wind. Our results show that under the action of the wind, the vertical heat flux through the cell initially decreases, due to the mechanism of plume sweeping, and then increases again when turbulent forced convect... [Phys. Rev. E 89, 043012] Published Fri Apr 11, 2014
    Keywords: Fluid Dynamics
    Print ISSN: 1539-3755
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-2376
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
  • 5
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper deals with the implications of natural resources for the conduct of economic policies and the role and design of institutions in resource-rich countries. The paper briefly reviews the experience of a few resource-rich countries, highlighting the successes of those that have done well as well as some of the fiscal, monetary, and exchange rate policy issues that arise along the way. Special attention is given to Norway, the world's third largest oil exporter, and the role of good governance, including democracy. The paper then turns from anecdotal to econometric analysis by offering a quick glance at some of the empirical crosscountry patterns that can be brought to bear on the relationship between natural resources, economic growth, and some of the main determinants of growth, including democracy.
    Keywords: O11 ; ddc:330 ; economic growth ; natural resources ; governance ; Rohstoffressourcen ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Good Governance ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Erfolgsfaktor ; Schätzung ; Welt ; Norwegen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We use a new dataset on non-resource GDP to examine the impact of commodity price volatility on economic growth in a panel of up to 158 countries during the period 1970-2007. Our main finding is that commodity price volatility leads to a significant increase in non-resource GDP growth in democracies, but to no significant increase in autocracies. To explain this result, we show that increased commodity price volatility leads to a statistically significant and quantitatively large increase in net national saving in democracies. In autocracies, on the other hand, net national saving decreased significantly. Our results hold true when using indicators capturing the quality of economic institutions in lieu of indicators of political institutions.
    Keywords: D74 ; D63 ; F32 ; Q33 ; ddc:330 ; commodity prices ; volatility ; democracy ; economic growth
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-23
    Description: This paper reports recent events in Iceland where the political agents of oligarchs didn t even bother to try to influence, let alone contest, a national referendum on a new constitution because, if they didn t like the result, they would simply find ways to nullify the outcome ex post. The paper reviews and explains the making of Iceland's crowd-sourced constitution bill from 2009 to 2014, and also offers an explanation as to why the bill failed to be passed by Parliament, addressing various criticisms leveled against the bill along the way. It needs to be emphasized that these criticisms, whether well founded or not (and they are not), are irrelevant because Parliament held a national referendum on 20 October 2012 in which the bill and its key individual provisions were accepted by an overwhelming majority of the voters. A democratic nation cannot under any circumstances permit the outcome of national elections, let alone a constitutional referendum, to be fixed ex post, but this is what the Icelandic Parliament is at present trying to do, flirting with a farewell to democracy.
    Keywords: K10 ; ddc:330 ; constitution ; democracy ; Iceland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: This paper reviews economic developments in Iceland following its financial collapse in 2008, focusing on causes and consequences of the crash. The review is presented in the context of the Nordic region, with broad comparisons also with developments elsewhere on the periphery of Europe, in Greece, Ireland, and Portugal. In some ways, however, Iceland resembles Italy, Japan, and Russia more than it resembles its Nordic neighbors or even Ireland. The paper also considers the uncertain prospects for reforms and restoration as well as the possible effects of the crash on social, human, and real capital and on long-run economic growth.
    Keywords: G01 ; O40 ; ddc:330 ; Iceland ; financial crisis ; social capital
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: In a major setback for the EU, only two of four Eastern Partnership countries actually initialed Association Agreements at the Vilnius Summit in November 2013. This paper asks what went wrong and what can be done about it. Using a gravity model to estimate the effects of deep and shallow free trade agreements for the Eastern Partnership states with Russia and the EU, the paper shows that the Eastern Partnership countries, including Ukraine, by far the largest in the group, gain significantly from free trade agreements with the EU, but gain little if anything from free trade agreements with Russia.
    Keywords: F14 ; F51 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; free trade agreements ; Eastern Partnership ; European Union
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: Natural resource discoveries, even when fairly modest in terms of the revenues they are expected to generate, can have significant macroeconomic effects and implications for the conduct of fiscal and monetary policy. In this respect, Uganda is no different from other oil-rich countries. In five main ways, all of which suggest the need for economic diversification as an efficient risk management strategy, the Dutch disease manifests itself through (i) An appreciation of the local currency in real terms, undermining the profitability of other export industries, and of local industries competing with imports by encouraging imports. (ii) The increased volatility of the real exchange rate induced by oscillating oil prices in world markets, which reduces investment and economic growth over time. (iii) Wage increases in the resource-intensive sector that spill over to the non-resource-based sector, further hampering employment and investment in the non-resource-based sector. (iv) Socially counterproductive rent seeking (and even plundering) in the absence of effective legal and institutional mechanisms that would ensure resource rents accrue to the rightful owners with minimal leakages, and are managed for the benefit of all. (v) Crowding out, by which natural capital (if not well managed) tends to undermine other types of capital essential to economic development, including human and social capital.
    Keywords: F43 ; O13 ; O43 ; ddc:330 ; Dutch disease ; export diversification ; economic growth ; Uganda
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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