ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 36 (2009): L11703, doi:10.1029/2009GL038677.
    Description: Proxy reconstructions and model simulations suggest that steeper interhemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradients lead to southerly Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) migrations during periods of North Atlantic cooling, the most recent of which was the Little Ice Age (LIA; ∼100–450 yBP). Evidence suggesting low-latitude Atlantic cooling during the LIA was relatively small (〈1°C) raises the possibility that the ITCZ may have responded to a hemispheric SST gradient originating in the extratropics. We use an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) to investigate the relative influence of low-latitude and extratropical SSTs on the meridional position of the ITCZ. Our results suggest that the ITCZ responds primarily to local, low-latitude SST anomalies and that small cool anomalies (〈0.5°C) can reproduce the LIA precipitation pattern suggested by paleoclimate proxies. Conversely, even large extratropical cooling does not significantly impact low-latitude hydrology in the absence of ocean-atmosphere interaction.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF grants OCE 0623364 and ATM 033746 as well as the student research fund of MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Science.
    Keywords: Climate ; ITCZ ; Little Ice Age
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 19 (2004): PA2008, doi:10.1029/2003PA000921.
    Description: Geochemical profiles from the North Atlantic Ocean suggest that the vertical δ13C structure of the water column at intermediate depths did not change significantly between glacial and interglacial time over much of the Pleistocene, despite large changes in ice volume and iceberg delivery from nearby landmasses. The most anomalous δ13C profiles are from the extreme interglaciations of the late Pleistocene. This compilation of data suggests that, unlike today (an extreme interglaciation), the two primary sources of northern deep water, Norwegian-Greenland Sea and Labrador Sea/subpolar North Atlantic, had different characteristic δ13C values over most of the Pleistocene. We speculate that the current open sea ice conditions in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea are a relatively rare occurrence and that the high-δ13C deep water that forms in this region today is geologically unusual. If northern source deep waters can have highly variable δ13C, then this likelihood must be considered when inferring past circulation changes from benthic δ13C records.
    Description: National Science Foundation grants OCE-0118005 and OCE-0118001, which supported MER and DWO.
    Keywords: Paleoceanography ; North Atlantic Deep Water ; Pleistocene
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: text/plain
    Format: application/postscript
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2003. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 18 (2003): 1086, doi:10.1029/2003PA000888.
    Description: Benthic foraminiferal Cd/Ca from an intermediate depth, western South Atlantic core documents the history of southward penetration of North Atlantic Intermediate Water (NAIW). Cd seawater estimates (CdW) for the last glacial are consistent with the production of NAIW and its export into the South Atlantic. At ∼14.5 ka concurrently with the onset of the Bølling-Allerød to Younger Dryas cooling, the NAIW contribution to the South Atlantic began to decrease, marking the transition from a glacial circulation pattern to a Younger Dryas circulation. High CdW in both the deep North Atlantic and the intermediate South Atlantic imply reduced export of deep and intermediate water during the Younger Dryas and a significant decrease in northward oceanic heat transport. A modern circulation was achieved at ∼9 ka, concurrently with the establishment of Holocene warmth in the North Atlantic region, further supporting a close linkage between deepwater variability and North Atlantic climate.
    Description: This work was supported by an MIT John Lyons Fellowship, a WHOI Ocean and Climate Change Institute Fellowship, and NSF grant OCE96-33499.
    Keywords: Cd/Ca ; δ13C ; Younger Dryas ; Intermediate water ; Foraminifera
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 20 (2005): PA1017, doi:10.1029/2004PA001021.
    Description: Oxygen and carbon isotopic data were produced on the benthic foraminiferal taxa Cibicidoides and Planulina from 25 new piston cores, gravity cores, and multicores from the Brazil margin. The cores span water depths from about 400 to 3000 m and intersect the major water masses in this region. These new data fill a critical gap in the South Atlantic Ocean and provide the motivation for updating the classic glacial western Atlantic δ13C transect of Duplessy et al. (1988). The distribution of δ13C of ΣCO2 requires the presence of three distinct water masses in the glacial Atlantic Ocean: a shallow (∼1000 m), southern source water mass with an end-member δ13C value of about 0.3–0.5‰ VPDB, a middepth (∼1500 m), northern source water mass with an end-member value of about 1.5‰, and a deep (〉2000 m), southern source water with an end-member value of less than −0.2‰, and perhaps as low as the −0.9‰ values observed in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (Ninnemann and Charles, 2002). The origins of the water masses are supported by the meridional gradients in benthic foraminiferal δ18O. A revised glacial section of deep water δ13C documents the positions and gradients among these end-member intermediate and deep water masses. The large property gradients in the presence of strong vertical mixing can only be maintained by a vigorous overturning circulation.
    Description: This research was supported by the National Science Foundation by grants OCE-9986748 and OCE-9905605.
    Keywords: Ice age ; Ocean circulation ; Ocean chemistry
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: text/plain
    Format: application/postscript
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 21 (2006): PA1007, doi:10.1029/2005PA001158.
    Description: Core top samples from Atlantic (Little Bahama Banks (LBB)) and Pacific (Hawaii and Indonesia) depth transects have been analyzed in order to assess the influence of bottom water temperature (BWT) and aragonite saturation levels on Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in the aragonitic benthic foraminifer Hoeglundina elegans. Both the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in H. elegans tests show a general decrease with increasing water depth. Although at each site the decreasing trends are consistent with the in situ temperature profile, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in LBB are substantially higher than in Indonesia and Hawaii at comparable water depths with a greater difference observed with increasing water depth. Because we find no significant difference between results obtained on “live” and “dead” specimens, we propose that these differences are due to primary effects on the metal uptake during test formation. Evaluation of the water column properties at each site suggests that in situ CO3 ion concentrations play an important role in determining the H. elegans Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios. The CO3 ion effect is limited, however, only to aragonite saturation levels ([ΔCO3]aragonite) below 15 μmol kg−1. Above this level, temperature exerts a dominant effect. Accordingly, we propose that Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in H. elegans tests can be used to reconstruct thermocline temperatures only in waters oversaturated with respect to the mineral aragonite using the following relationships: Mg/Ca = (0.034 ± 0.002)BWT + (0.96 ± 0.03) and Sr/Ca = (0.060 ± 0.002)BWT + (1.53 ± 0.03) (for [ΔCO3]aragonite 〉 15 μmol kg−1). The standard error associated with these equations is about ±1.1°C. Reconstruction of deeper water temperatures is complicated because in undersaturated waters, changes in Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios reflect a combination of changes in [CO3] and BWT. Overall, we find that Sr/Ca, rather than Mg/Ca, in H. elegans may be a more accurate proxy for reconstructing paleotemperatures.
    Description: Yair Rosenthal acknowledges the support of Amtzia Genin and the Hebrew University, Forchheimer Fellowship, during his sabbatical in the Inter-University Institute in Eilat, Israel. This project has been funded by NSF Awards OCE 0220922 to Y.R. and OCE 0220776 to D.W.O. and B.K.L.
    Keywords: Benthic foraminifera ; Paleothermometry ; Magnesium
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 20 (2005): PA3009, doi:10.1029/2004PA001091.
    Description: Similar orbital geometry and greenhouse gas concentrations during marine isotope stage 11 (MIS 11) and the Holocene make stage 11 perhaps the best geological analogue period for the natural development of the present interglacial climate. Results of a detailed study of core MD01-2443 from the Iberian margin suggest that sea surface conditions during stage 11 were not significantly different from those observed during the elapsed portion of the Holocene. Peak interglacial conditions during stage 11 lasted nearly 18 kyr, indicating a Holocene unperturbed by human activity might last an additional 6–7 kyr. A comparison of sea surface temperatures (SST) derived from planktonic foraminifera for all interglacial intervals of the last million years reveals that warm temperatures during peak interglacials MIS 1, 5e, and 11 were higher on the Iberian margin than during substage 7e and most of 9e. The SST results are supported by heavier δ18O values, particularly during 7e, indicating colder SSTs and a larger residual ice volume. Benthic δ13C results provide evidence of a strong influence of North Atlantic Deep Water at greater depths than present during MIS 11. The progressive ocean climate deterioration into the following glaciation is associated with an increase in local upwelling intensity, interspersed by periodic cold episodes due to ice-rafting events occurring in the North Atlantic.
    Description: This work was partially undertaken in association with the ‘‘POP Project,’’ EC grant EVK2-2000-00089. Funding for L.A. was provided by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology under the fellowship contract SFRH/BPD/1588/2000 and by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, through a visiting fellowship to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Keywords: Stage 11 ; Interglacials ; Planktonic foraminifera ; Stable isotopes ; Western Iberian margin ; Eastern North Atlantic
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-09-26
    Description: © The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters 389 (2014): 200-208, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2013.12.037.
    Description: Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is a key player in the global ocean circulation, contributing to the upper limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and influencing interhemispheric heat exchange and the distribution of salinity, nutrients and carbon. However, the deglacial history of AAIW flow into the North Atlantic is controversial. Here we present a multicore-top neodymium isotope calibration, which confirms the ability of unclean foraminifera to faithfully record bottom water neodymium isotopic composition (εNdεNd) values in their authigenic coatings. We then present the first foraminifera-based reconstruction of εNdεNd from three sediment cores retrieved from within modern AAIW, in the western tropical North Atlantic. Our records reveal similar glacial and interglacial contributions of AAIW, and a pronounced decrease in the AAIW fraction during North Atlantic deglacial cold episodes, Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) and Younger Dryas (YD). Our results suggest two separate phases of reduced fraction of AAIW in the tropical Atlantic during HS1, with a greater reduction during early HS1. If a reduction in AAIW fraction also reflects reduced AMOC strength, this finding may explain why, in many regions, there are two phases of hydrologic change within HS1, and why atmospheric CO2 rose more rapidly during early than late HS1. Our result suggesting less flow of AAIW into the Atlantic during North Atlantic cold events contrasts with evidence from the Pacific, where intermediate-depth εNdεNd records may indicate increased flow of AAIW into the Pacific during the these same events. Antiphased εNdεNd behavior between intermediate depths of the North Atlantic and Pacific implies that the flow of AAIW into Atlantic and Pacific seesawed during the last deglaciation.
    Description: This work was supported by US NSF grants and a Lawrence J. Pratt and Melinda M. Hall Endowed Fund for Interdisciplinary Research Award to D.W.O. and W.B.C. and by a Taiwan NSC Postdoctoral Fellowship (NSC98-2917-I-564-132) to K.F.H.
    Keywords: Nd isotopes ; Antarctic intermediate water ; Atlantic meridional overturning circulation ; Deglacial variability ; North Atlantic cold events
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2009. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Nature Publishing Group for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Nature 460 (2009): 1113-1116, doi:10.1038/nature08233.
    Description: Northern Hemisphere surface temperature reconstructions suggest that the late twentieth century was warmer than any other time during the past 500 years and possibly any time during the past 1,300 years. These temperature reconstructions are based largely on terrestrial records from extra-tropical or highelevation sites; however, global average surface temperature changes closely follow those of the global tropics, which are 75% ocean. In particular, the tropical Indo- Pacific warm pool (IPWP) represents a major heat reservoir that both influences global atmospheric circulation and responds to remote northern latitude forcings. Here we present a decadally resolved continuous sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction from the IPWP that spans the past two millennia and overlaps the instrumental record, enabling both a direct comparison of proxy data to the instrumental record and an evaluation of past changes in the context of twentieth century trends. Our record from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia, exhibits trends that are similar to a recent Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction. Reconstructed SST was, however, within error of modern values during the Medieval Warm Period from about AD 1000 to AD 1250, towards the end of the Medieval Warm Period. SSTs during the Little Ice Age (approximately ad 1550–1850) were variable, and 0.5 to 1°C colder than modern values during the coldest intervals. A companion reconstruction of δ18O of sea water—a sea surface salinity and hydrology indicator— indicates a tight coupling with the East Asian monsoon system and remote control of IPWP hydrology on centennial–millennial timescales, rather than a dominant influence from local SST variation.
    Description: This work was financially supported by the US NSF and the Ocean Climate Change Institute of WHOI.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 23 (2008): PA1217, doi:10.1029/2007PA001450.
    Description: Benthic foraminiferal Cd/Ca from a Florida Current sediment core documents the history of the northward penetration of southern source waters within the surface return flow of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Cd seawater estimates (CdW) indicate that intermediate-depth southern source waters crossed the equator and contributed to the Florida Current during the Bølling-Allerød warm period of the last deglaciation, consistent with evidence of only a modest AMOC reduction compared to today. The CdW estimates also provide the first paleoceanographic evidence of a reduction in the influence of intermediate-depth southern source waters within the Florida Current during the Younger Dryas, a deglacial cold event characterized by a weak North Atlantic AMOC. Our results reveal a close correspondence between the northward penetration of intermediate-depth southern source waters and the influence of North Atlantic Deep Water, suggesting a possible link between intermediate-depth southern source waters and the strength of the Atlantic AMOC.
    Description: This work was funded by the NSF and the WHOI Ocean and Climate Change Institute.
    Keywords: Meridional overturning ; Cd/Ca ; Younger Dryas
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 23 (2008): PA3102, doi:10.1029/2007PA001572.
    Description: We analyzed strontium/calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) in four colonies of the Atlantic coral genus Montastrea with growth rates ranging from 2.3 to 12.6 mm a−1. Derived Sr/Ca–sea surface temperature (SST) calibrations exhibit significant differences among the four colonies that cannot be explained by variations in SST or seawater Sr/Ca. For a single coral Sr/Ca ratio of 8.8 mmol mol−1, the four calibrations predict SSTs ranging from 24.0° to 30.9°C. We find that differences in the Sr/Ca–SST relationships are correlated systematically with the average annual extension rate (ext) of each colony such that Sr/Ca (mmol mol−1) = 11.82 (±0.13) – 0.058 (±0.004) × ext (mm a−1) – 0.092 (±0.005) × SST (°C). This observation is consistent with previous reports of a link between coral Sr/Ca and growth rate. Verification of our growth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration using a coral excluded from the calibration reconstructs the mean and seasonal amplitude of the actual recorded SST to within 0.3°C. Applying a traditional, nongrowth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration derived from a modern Montastrea to the Sr/Ca ratios of a conspecific coral that grew during the early Little Ice Age (LIA) (400 years B.P.) suggests that Caribbean SSTs were 〉5°C cooler than today. Conversely, application of our growth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration to Sr/Ca ratios derived from the LIA coral indicates that SSTs during the 5-year period analyzed were within error (±1.4°C) of modern values.
    Description: This work was funded by National Science Foundation (NSF) grant OCE- 0402728, the WHOI Ocean and Climate Change Institute, and an NSF Graduate Student Fellowship.
    Keywords: Coral ; Strontium/calcium ; Growth rate
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...