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  • Articles  (22)
  • 2010-2014  (20)
  • 1880-1889  (2)
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  • Articles  (22)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 21 (1880), S. 537-537 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SOMETHING very like the “comb-like masses of ice” appears upon the surfaces of plaster-models such as dentists make, after they have been coated with a preparation called Liquid Silex; except that it is finer and woolly. It seems to be caused by the contraction of the models forcing out very ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-04-04
    Description: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of solids is rarely attempted. One of the main reasons is that the broader MR linewidths, compared to the narrow resonance of the hydrogen (1H) in free water, limit both the attainable spatial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio. Basic physics research, stimulated by the quest to build a quantum computer, gave rise to a unique MR pulse sequence that offers a solution to this long-standing problem. The “quadratic echo” significantly narrows the broad MR spectrum of solids. Applying field gradients in sync with this line-narrowing sequence offers a fresh approach to carry out MRI of hard and soft solids with high spatial resolution and with a wide range of potential uses. Here we demonstrate that this method can be used to carry out three-dimensional MRI of the phosphorus (31P) in ex vivo bone and soft tissue samples.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-06-28
    Description: The remarkable selectivity of N -methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) for G-quadruplexes (GQs) is long known, however its ability to stabilize and bind GQs has not been investigated in detail. Through the use of circular dichroism, UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assay we have shown that NMM stabilizes human telomeric DNA dAG 3 (TTAG 3 ) 3 (Tel22) and is selective for its parallel conformation to which it binds in 1:1 stoichiometry with a binding constant of ~1.0 x 10 5 M –1 . NMM does not interact with an antiparallel conformation of Tel22 in sodium buffer and is the second example in the literature, after TOxaPy, of a ligand with an excellent selectivity for a specific GQ structure. NMM's stabilizing ability toward predominantly parallel GQ conformation is universal: it stabilizes a variety of biologically relevant G-rich sequences including telomeres and oncogene promoters. The N -methyl group is integral for selectivity and stabilization, as the unmethylated analogue, mesoporphyrin IX, does not stabilize GQ DNA in FRET melting assays. Finally, NMM induces the isomerization of Tel22 into a structure with increased parallel component in K + but not in Na + buffer. The ability of NMM to cause structural rearrangement and efficient stabilization of Tel22 may bear biological significance.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-07-20
    Description: What the world does or does not do about climate change will have profound implications. If the world fails to act, we may cross a climate tipping point, with disastrous consequences all around. No country by itself can prevent this, but a substantial number of countries working together can avert disaster. Collectively, we know what we need to do. However, can we agree on what each of us should do? Can we be assured that, if we act, others will fulfill their pledges? An experimental paper in PNAS (1) provides reasons for optimism and despair, optimism because, with communication, outcomes...
    Keywords: Sustainability Science
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-10-11
    Description: Continental margin sediments provide a potentially large but poorly constrained source of dissolved iron (dFe) to the upper ocean. The Ross Sea continental shelf is one region where this benthic supply is thought to play a key role in regulating the magnitude of seasonal primary production. Here we present data collected during austral summer 2012 that reveal contrasting low surface (0.08 ± 0.07 nM) and elevated near-seafloor (0.74 ± 0.47 nM) dFe concentrations. Combining these observations with results from a high-resolution physical circulation model, we estimate dFe efflux of 5.8 × 10 7  mol yr -1 from the deeper portions (〉400 m) of the Ross Sea continental shelf; more than sufficient to account for the inferred “winter reserve” dFe inventory at the onset of the growing season. In addition, elevated dFe concentrations observed over shallower bathymetry suggest that such features provide additional inputs of dFe to the euphotic zone throughout the year.
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-09-17
    Description: Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the...
    Keywords: Sustainability Science
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-09-25
    Description: The coordination between nuclear and organellar genes is essential to many aspects of eukaryotic life, including basic metabolism, energy production, and ultimately, organismal fitness. Although nuclear genes are biparentally inherited, mitochondrial and chloroplast genes are almost exclusively maternally inherited, and this asymmetry may lead to a bias in the chromosomal distribution of nuclear genes whose products act in the mitochondria or chloroplasts. In particular, because X-linked genes have a higher probability of cotransmission with organellar genes (2/3) compared with autosomal genes (1/2), selection for coadaptation has been predicted to lead to an overrepresentation of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes on the X chromosome relative to autosomes. In contrast, the occurrence of sexually antagonistic organellar mutations might lead to selection for movement of cytonuclear genes from the X chromosome to autosomes to reduce male mutation load. Recent broad-scale comparative studies of N-mt distributions in animals have found evidence for these hypotheses in some species, but not others. Here, we use transcriptome sequences to conduct the first study of the chromosomal distribution of cytonuclear interacting genes in a plant species with sex chromosomes ( Rumex hastatulus ; Polygonaceae). We found no evidence of under- or overrepresentation of either N-mt or N-cp genes on the X chromosome, and thus no support for either the coadaptation or the sexual-conflict hypothesis. We discuss how our results from a species with recently evolved sex chromosomes fit into an emerging picture of the evolutionary forces governing the chromosomal distribution of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-07-23
    Description: Due to the failure of international efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, consideration is now being given to solar geoengineering—a deliberate intervention to limit global warming without altering the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. In contrast to emission cuts, geoengineering is expected to be cheap, quick to lower temperature, and feasible through the use of a single intervention. However, geoengineering is an imperfect substitute for emission reductions and will likely have undesirable side effects, only some of which can be anticipated before geoengineering is deployed. Most importantly, because geoengineering can be undertaken unilaterally, it creates issues of governance: Who gets to decide if, when, and how geoengineering should be attempted? This article provides an introduction to the key issues surrounding the governance of this unprecedented technology. ( JEL : Q54, F53, K33)
    Keywords: Q54 - Climate ; Natural Disasters ; Global Warming, F53 - International Agreements and Observance ; International Organizations, K33 - International Law
    Print ISSN: 1750-6816
    Electronic ISSN: 1750-6824
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science , Economics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-04-18
    Description: Author(s): R. Yanez, W. Loveland, L. Yao, J. S. Barrett, S. Zhu, B. B. Back, T. L. Khoo, M. Alcorta, and M. Albers We have studied the fission-neutron emission competition in highly excited Hs274 (Z=108) (where the fission barrier is due to shell effects) formed by a hot fusion reaction. Matching cross bombardments (Mg26+Cm248 and Mg25+Cm248) were used to identify the properties of first chance fission of Hs274.... [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 152702] Published Thu Apr 17, 2014
    Keywords: Nuclear Physics
    Print ISSN: 0031-9007
    Electronic ISSN: 1079-7114
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
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    Seismological Society of America (SSA)
    Publication Date: 2014-05-04
    Print ISSN: 0895-0695
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-2057
    Topics: Geosciences
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