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  • 2010-2014  (245)
  • 1935-1939  (2)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-01-22
    Description: Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of the anti-stress sugar trehalose. An 82 kDa TPP enzyme was isolated from Candida utilis with 61% yield and 43-fold purification. The protein sequence, determined by N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF analysis, showed significant homology with known TPP sequences from related organisms. The full length gene sequence of TPP of Candida utilis was identified using rapid amplification of cDNA ends - PCR reaction (RACE-PCR). The gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21. Recombinant TPP enzyme was isolated using affinity chromatography. CD spectroscopy and steady state fluorescence revealed that the structural and conformational aspects were identical in both native and recombinant forms. The biochemical properties of the two forms were also similar. K m was determined to be ∼0.8 mM. Optimum temperature and pH was found to be 30 °C and 8.5 respectively. Activity was dependent on the presence of divalent cations and inhibited by metal chelators. Methylation mediated regulation of TPP enzyme and its effect on the overall survival of the organism under stress were investigated. The results indicated that enhancement of TPP activity by methylation at the Cysteine residues increased resistance of Candida cells against thermal stress. This work involves extensive investigations towards understanding the physico-chemical properties of the first TPP enzyme from any yeast strain. The mechanism by which methylation regulates its activity has also been studied. A correlation between regulation of trehalose synthesis and survivability of the organism under thermal stress was established. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Electronic ISSN: 1097-4652
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Wiley
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-05-01
    Description: In the western part of the Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), East Indian Shield, borosilicate-bearing veins of variable thickness (tens of micrometers to 1 m thick) are hosted in kyanite-quartzite and kyanite-mica schist. The veins have been classified into three types, which are, from oldest to youngest, generation I (tourmaline), II (dumortierite + tourmaline), and III (tourmaline) veins. Alkali- and Mg-rich tourmaline [XMg = Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.68 {+/-} 0.09; X = Na, Ca, K, {square} (vacancy) = 0.40 {+/-} 0.12] is the sole borosilicate in generation I veins, which have been folded in response to regional deformation. Generation II veins were emplaced along shear bands (1 mm to 1 m thick) developed parallel to the axial planes of these folds. Long axes of fibrous dumortierite and prismatic tourmaline of generation II veins are oriented along the shear bands and have been bent around lenticular remnants of host kyanite-quartzite. Generation III veins have a dendritic pattern, crosscut generation II veins and show aggregates of fibrous to acicular tourmaline. Prismatic tourmaline in generation II veins is optically zoned with a green tourmaline core that is variably replaced and rimmed by blue tourmaline. Fibrous to acicular tourmaline in generation III veins is comprised up of blue tourmaline with compositions similar to the rim composition of prismatic tourmaline in generation II veins. Green and blue tourmaline is aluminous (Al total 〉7 apfu) and alkali-deficient (X = 0.71 {+/-} 0.08). High YAl content, high X, low XMg (0.19 {+/-} 0.10), and excess cation charge indicate tourmaline in generation II veins is rich in an "oxy-foitite" component. Foitite-rich tourmaline in generation III veins has tetrahedral Al and a slightly lower Mg-content and X than those of generation II veins. Optical zoning in prismatic tourmaline corresponds to an abrupt compositional change with paragenetically older green tourmaline having higher Al and XMg, but lower alkali content in the X-site than the blue tourmaline rim. The compositional variation in green and blue tourmaline can be explained by a combination of coupled substitutions represented by AlO[R(OH)]-1 and Al(NaR)-1, where R = (Fe2+ + Mg). Pseudosections in the system Na2O-K2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O constructed from bulk chemical compositions of the studied rocks and the P-T slopes of two isochors computed from brine-rich inclusions trapped in quartz grains indicate that borosilicate formation in generation II and III veins occurred within 4.1 {+/-} 0.5 kbar and 377 {+/-} 21 {degrees}C. The mineral assemblages and textures suggest that the borosilicate-bearing veins formed from infiltration-driven alteration of host kyanite-quartzite and kyanite-mica schist along structurally controlled conduits by more than one batch of chemically distinct boron-rich aqueous fluids.
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-07-11
    Description: Nanoscale drug delivery vehicles have been harnessed extensively as carriers for cancer chemotherapeutics. However, traditional pharmaceutical approaches for nanoformulation have been a challenge with molecules that exhibit incompatible physicochemical properties, such as platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Here we propose a paradigm based on rational design of active molecules that facilitate supramolecular assembly in the nanoscale dimension. Using cisplatin as a template, we describe the synthesis of a unique platinum (II) tethered to a cholesterol backbone via a unique monocarboxylato and O→Pt coordination environment that facilitates nanoparticle assembly with a fixed ratio of phosphatidylcholine and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino (polyethylene glycol)-2000]. The nanoparticles formed exhibit lower IC50 values compared with carboplatin or cisplatin in vitro, and are active in cisplatin-resistant conditions. Additionally, the nanoparticles exhibit significantly enhanced in vivo antitumor efficacy in murine 4T1 breast cancer and in K-RasLSL/+/Ptenfl/fl ovarian cancer models with decreased systemic- and nephro-toxicity. Our results indicate that integrating rational drug design and supramolecular nanochemistry can emerge as a powerful strategy for drug development. Furthermore, given that platinum-based chemotherapeutics form the frontline therapy for a broad range of cancers, the increased efficacy and toxicity profile indicate the constructed nanostructure could translate into a next-generation platinum-based agent in the clinics.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-05-01
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
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    Santa Cruz, CA: University of California, Economics Department
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: In this paper we evaluate the current account patterns of China and Germany. We point out that China's current account surplus as a share of global GDP in recent years resembles that of Germany's. Yet, an important difference is that the Euro block's current account inclusive of Germany, has overall been balanced, whereas emerging Asia's current account inclusive of China, has mostly been characterized by sizable surpluses. We further find that both China and Germany's current account surpluses seem to be accounted for by common factors. However we have reasons to doubt the long run viability of these current account trends in future decades. Demographic transitions in China and Germany are projected to reduce their surpluses, and this effect is stronger for Germany. We also discuss plausible reasons to doubt the extent to which the Euro block will move towards significant surplus in the coming years.
    Keywords: F15 ; F32 ; ddc:330 ; current accounts ; demographic transitions ; global imbalances ; Zahlungsbilanzungleichgewicht ; Leistungsbilanz ; Vergleich ; Deutschland ; China
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Format: text
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  • 7
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    Dresden: Univ. of Technology, Fac. of Business Management and Economics
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Mis-match of trade statistics between developed and developing countries indicate a substantial mis-invoicing of trade figures, primarily by developing country traders. This is due to the inflexible exchange rate regimes, severe import restrictions and export subsidies prevailing in LDCs. In this paper we focus on the import under-invoicing due to high tariff barriers in a market where domestic producers compete with importers. Specifically, we examine how tariff levels, market structure and government intervention (in the form of intensity of monitoring and severity of penalties) affect the levels of under-invoicing. We also look at the optimal levels of import tariff and instruments of government intervention in these circumstances.
    Keywords: F12 ; F13 ; L13 ; ddc:330 ; import tariff ; under-invoicing ; Cournot oligopoly ; Import ; Zollpolitik ; Protektionismus ; Importhandel ; Außenhandelspreis ; Betrug ; Wettbewerbsbeschränkung ; Oligopol ; Schattenwirtschaft ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-23
    Description: We explore the real effective exchange rate (REER) effects on the share of exports of Indian non-financial sector firms for the period 2000 to 2010. Our empirical analysis reveals that, on average, there has been a strong and significant negative impact of currency appreciation as well as currency volatility on Indian firms' export shares. The labor costs are found to intensify the exchange rate effects on trade. Further, there is evidence that these Indian firms respond asymmetrically to exchange rates. For instance, the REER change effect is likely to be driven by a negative appreciation effect but not so much a depreciation effect. Also, Indian firms that have smaller export shares tend to have a stronger response to both REER change and volatility. Compared with those exporting goods, the firms that export services are more affected by exchange rate fluctuations. The findings, especially those on asymmetric responses, have important policy implications.
    Keywords: F10 ; F40 ; ddc:330 ; exchange rate fluctuations ; firm-level export shares ; asymmetric effects ; services exports
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-03-22
    Description: The arcuate Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) of the East Indian Shield area, fringing the Archaean Singhbhum Craton, exposes a mélange-like ensemble of polymetamorphosed and highly tectonized siliciclastic sediments, mafic–ultramafic extrusive, tourmaline-rich rocks, magnetite–apatite rocks, granites and Cu–Fe–U sulphide ores of Meso- to Palaeoproterozoic age (1.5–1.77 Ga). Metapelites from two localities in the SSZ developed the enigmatic assemblage chloritoid–biotite–garnet–chlorite, which are the first reported from India and the eighth in world occurrence. Textural studies and algebraic analyses of the phase compositions in the KFMASH system indicate the operation of the reaction, chloritoid+biotite?garnet+chlorite+H2O and this reaction has a negative slope in pressure–temperature (P–T) space. Quantitative geothermobarometry and pseudosections in the NCMnKFMASHO system indicate that this reaction occurred during prograde metamorphism that culminated at 6.3±1 kbar and 490±40 °C. The stability of the chloritoid+biotite is also sensitive to the MnO content of the bulk rock, and to the chemical potential of H2O and oxygen ( and , respectively), of the ambient fluid phase. Thrusting of continental crust in a collisional setting is invoked to explain the peak metamorphic temperatures and the clockwise P–T trajectory is construed from the petrological study of the chloritoid–biotite schist.
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  • 10
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 365: 117-145.
    Publication Date: 2012-03-22
    Description: Geological information on the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC) has been reviewed with a view to: (a) identifying the different metamorphic episodes; (b) developing an event stratigraphy in the high-grade blocks; and (c) correlating the different metamorphic episodes with the globally extensive orogenic processes. Integrating the existing geological information, the geological evolution of the high-grade block of the CGGC has been divided into four stages associated with four distinct metamorphic events (MI-MIV). The earliest metamorphic event (MI) that is recorded in granulite enclaves in the regionally extensive felsic gneisses culminated in ultrahigh temperatures (〉900 °C at c. 5–8 kbar) at around 1.87 Ga. In the second stage, voluminous felsic magmas were intruded – the MI granulites – and were metamorphosed to form migmatitic felsic gneisses (MII) within about 1.66–1.55 Ga. The third stage witnessed intrusions of a suite of anorthosite and porphyritic granitoids (c. 1.55–1.51 Ga), followed by high-grade metamorphism (700±50 °C, 6.5±1 kbar, MIII) during approximately 1.2–0.93 Ga. The fourth stage (MIV) is marked by the intrusion of a suite of mafic dykes, followed by infiltration-driven metamorphism (600–750 °C at 7±1) during 0.87–0.78 Ga. The proposed metamorphic events have been correlated with the supercontinental cycles in the Proterozoic time.
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