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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: The Fc domain of human IgG1 binds to Fc receptors (FcRs) to induce effector functions such as phagocytosis. There are four interchain disulfide bonds between the H and L chains. In this study, the disulfide bonds within the IgG1 trastuzumab (TRA), which is specific for HER2, were cleaved by mild S-sulfonation or by mild reduction followed by S-alkylation with three different reagents. The cleavage did not change the binding activities of TRA to HER2-bearing SK-BR-3 cells. The binding activities of TRA to FcRIIA and FcRIIB were greatly enhanced by modification with mild reduction and S-alkylation with ICH 2 CONH 2 or N-(4-aminophenyl) maleimide, while the binding activities of TRA to FcRI and FcRIIIA were decreased by any of the four modifications. However, the interchain disulfide bond cleavage by the different modifications did not change the antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of SK-BR-3 cells by activated THP-1 cells. The order of FcR expression levels on the THP-1 cells was FcRII 〉 FcRI 〉 FcRIII and ADCP was inhibited by blocking antibodies against FcRI and FcRII. These results imply that the effect of the interchain disulfide bond cleavage on FcRs binding and ADCP is dependent on modifications of the cysteine residues and the FcR isotypes.
    Print ISSN: 0021-924X
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-2651
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-10-15
    Description: " Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae" ( Bacteria ; Elusimicrobia ) is an obligate intracellular symbiont of the cellulolytic protist genus Trichonympha in the termite gut. A previous genome analysis of " Ca . Endomicrobium trichonymphae" phylotype Rs-D17 (genomovar Ri2008), obtained from a Trichonympha agilis cell in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes speratus , revealed that its genome is small (1.1 Mb) and contains many pseudogenes; it is in the course of reductive genome evolution. Here we report the complete genome sequence of another Rs-D17 genomovar, Ti2015, obtained from a different T. agilis cell present in an R. speratus gut. These two genomovars share most intact protein-coding genes and pseudogenes, showing 98.6% chromosome sequence similarity. However, characteristic differences were found in their defense systems, which comprised restriction-modification and CRISPR/Cas systems. The repertoire of intact restriction-modification systems differed between the genomovars, and two of the three CRISPR/Cas loci in genomovar Ri2008 are pseudogenized or missing in genomovar Ti2015. These results suggest relaxed selection pressure for maintaining these defense systems. Nevertheless, the remaining CRISPR/Cas system in each genomovar appears to be active; none of the "spacer" sequences (112 in Ri2008 and 128 in Ti2015) were shared whereas the "repeat" sequences were identical. Furthermore, we obtained draft genomes of three additional endosymbiotic Endomicrobium phylotypes from different host protist species, and discovered multiple, intact CRISPR/Cas systems in each genome. Collectively, unlike bacteriome endosymbionts in insects, the Endomicrobium endosymbionts of termite-gut protists appear to require defense against foreign DNA, although the required level of defense has likely been reduced during their intracellular lives.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-08-17
    Description: Author(s): T. Onimaru, K. Izawa, K. T. Matsumoto, T. Yoshida, Y. Machida, T. Ikeura, K. Wakiya, K. Umeo, S. Kittaka, K. Araki, T. Sakakibara, and T. Takabatake Orbital degrees of freedom in condensed matter could play important roles in forming a variety of exotic electronic states by interacting with conduction electrons. In 4 f -electron systems, because of strong intra-atomic spin-orbit coupling, an orbitally degenerate state inherently carries quadrupola… [Phys. Rev. B 94, 075134] Published Tue Aug 16, 2016
    Keywords: Electronic structure and strongly correlated systems
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-23
    Description: The travel of heat in insulators is commonly pictured as a flow of phonons scattered along their individual trajectory. In rare circumstances, momentum-conserving collision events dominate, and thermal transport becomes hydrodynamic. One of these cases, dubbed the Poiseuille flow of phonons, can occur in a temperature window just below the peak temperature of thermal conductivity. We report on a study of heat flow in bulk black phosphorus between 0.1 and 80 K. We find a thermal conductivity showing a faster than cubic temperature dependence between 5 and 12 K. Consequently, the effective phonon mean free path shows a nonmonotonic temperature dependence at the onset of the ballistic regime, with a size-dependent Knudsen minimum. These are hallmarks of Poiseuille flow previously observed in a handful of solids. Comparing the phonon dispersion in black phosphorus and silicon, we show that the phase space for normal scattering events in black phosphorus is much larger. Our results imply that the most important requirement for the emergence of Poiseuille flow is the facility of momentum exchange between acoustic phonon branches. Proximity to a structural transition can be beneficial for the emergence of this behavior in clean systems, even when they do not exceed silicon in purity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Zymosan is a glucan that is a component of the yeast cell wall. Here, we determined the mechanisms underlying the zymosan-induced accumulation of neutrophils in mice. Loss of the receptor CD300b reduced the number of neutrophils recruited to dorsal air pouches in response to zymosan, but not in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial membrane component recognized by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). An inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis reduced the number of neutrophils in the zymosan-treated air pouches of wild-type mice to an amount comparable to that in 〈i〉CD300b〈sup〉–/–〈/sup〉〈/i〉 mice. Treatment with clodronate liposomes decreased the number of NO-producing, CD300b〈sup〉+〈/sup〉 inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs) in wild-type mice, thus decreasing NO production and neutrophil recruitment. Similarly, CD300b deficiency decreased the NO-dependent recruitment of neutrophils to zymosan-treated joint cavities, thus ameliorating subsequent arthritis. We identified phytosphingosine, a lipid component of zymosan, as a potential ligand of CD300b. Phytosphingosine stimulated NO production in inflammatory DCs and promoted neutrophil recruitment in a CD300b-dependent manner. Together, these results suggest that the phytosphingosine-CD300b interaction promotes zymosan-dependent neutrophil accumulation by inducing NO production by inflammatory DCs and that CD300b may contribute to antifungal immunity.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Electronic ISSN: 1937-9145
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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