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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet, 259.0 kBytes
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Stap, Lennert Bastiaan; de Boer, Bas; Ziegler, Martin; Bintanja, Richard; Lourens, Lucas Joost; van de Wal, Roderik S W (2016): CO2 over the past 5 million years: Continuous simulation and new d11B-based proxy data. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 439, 1-10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.01.022
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: During the past five million yrs, benthic d18O records indicate a large range of climates, from warmer than today during the Pliocene Warm Period to considerably colder during glacials. Antarctic ice cores have revealed Pleistocene glacial-interglacial CO2 variability of 60-100 ppm, while sea level fluctuations of typically 125 m are documented by proxy data. However, in the pre-ice core period, CO2 and sea level proxy data are scarce and there is disagreement between different proxies and different records of the same proxy. This hampers comprehensive understanding of the long-term relations between CO2, sea level and climate. Here, we drive a coupled climate-ice sheet model over the past five million years, inversely forced by a stacked benthic d18O record. We obtain continuous simulations of benthic d18O, sea level and CO2 that are mutually consistent. Our model shows CO2 concentrations of 300 to 470 ppm during the Early Pliocene. Furthermore, we simulate strong CO2 variability during the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. These features are broadly supported by existing and new d11B-based proxy CO2 data, but less by alkenone-based records. The simulated concentrations and variations therein are larger than expected from global mean temperature changes. Our findings thus suggest a smaller Earth System Sensitivity than previously thought. This is explained by a more restricted role of land ice variability in the Pliocene. The largest uncertainty in our simulation arises from the mass balance formulation of East Antarctica, which governs the variability in sea level, but only modestly affects the modeled CO2 concentrations.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Waelbroeck, Claire; Lougheed, Bryan C; Vázquez Riveiros, Natalia; Missiaen, Lise; Pedro, Joel B; Dokken, Trond; Hajdas, Irka; Wacker, Lukas; Abbott, Peter M; Dumoulin, Jean-Pascal; Thil, François; Eynaud, Frédérique; Rossignol, Linda; Fersi, Wiem; Albuquerque, Ana Luiza Spadano; Arz, Helge W; Austin, William EN; Came, Rosemarie E; Carlson, Anders Eskil; Collins, James A; Dennielou, Bernard; Desprat, Stéphanie; Dickson, Alex; Elliot, Mary; Farmer, Christa; Giraudeau, Jaques; Gottschalk, Julia; Henderiks, Jorijntje; Hughen, Konrad A; Jung, Simon; Knutz, Paul Cornils; Lebreiro, Susana Martin; Lund, David C; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Malaizé, Bruno; Marchitto, Thomas M; Martínez Méndez, Gema; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Naughton, Filipa; Nave, Silvia Osorio; Nürnberg, Dirk; Oppo, Delia W; Peck, Victoria L; Peeters, Frank J C; Penaud, Aurélie; Portilho-Ramos, Rodrigo Costa; Repschläger, Janne; Roberts, Jenny; Rühlemann, Carsten; Salgueiro, Emilia; Sanchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda; Schönfeld, Joachim; Scussolini, Paolo; Skinner, Luke C; Skonieczny, Charlotte; Thornalley, David JR; Toucanne, Samuel; Van Rooij, David; Vidal, Laurence; Voelker, Antje H L; Wary, Mélanie; Weldeab, Syee; Ziegler, Martin (2019): Consistently dated Atlantic sediment cores over the last 40 thousand years. Scientific Data, 165, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-019-0173-8
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Rapid changes in ocean circulation and climate have been observed in marine-sediment and ice cores over the last glacial period and deglaciation, highlighting the non-linear character of the climate system and underlining the possibility of rapid climate shifts in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. To date, these rapid changes in climate and ocean circulation are still not fully explained. One obstacle hindering progress in our understanding of the interactions between past ocean circulation and climate changes is the difficulty of accurately dating marine cores. Here, we present a set of 92 marine sediment cores from the Atlantic Ocean for which we have established age-depth models that are consistent with the Greenland GICC05 ice core chronology, and computed the associated dating uncertainties, using a new deposition modeling technique. This is the first set of consistently dated marine sediment cores enabling paleoclimate scientists to evaluate leads/lags between circulation and climate changes over vast regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Moreover, this data set is of direct use in paleoclimate modeling studies.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 93 datasets
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  • 4
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 3955 data points
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The import of relatively salty water masses from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic is considered to be important for the operational mode of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). However, the occurrence and the origin of changes in this import behavior on millennial and glacial/interglacial timescales remains equivocal. Here we reconstruct multiproxy paleosalinity changes in the Agulhas Current since the Last Glacial Maximum and compare the salinity pattern with records from the Indian-Atlantic Ocean Gateway (I-AOG) and model simulations using a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The reconstructed paleosalinity pattern in the Agulhas Current displays coherent variability with changes recorded in the wider I-AOG region over the last glacial termination. We infer that salinities simultaneously increased in both areas consistent with a quasi interhemispheric salt-seesaw response, analogous to the thermal bipolar seesaw in response to a reduced cross-hemispheric heat and salt exchange during times of weakened AMOC. Interestingly, these hydrographic shifts can also be recognized in the wider Southern Hemisphere, which indicates that salinity anomalies are not purely restricted to the Agulhas Current System itself. More saline upstream Agulhas waters were propagated to the I-AOG during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1). However, the salt flux into the South Atlantic might have been reduced due to a decreased volume transport through the I-AOG during the AMOC slowdown associated with HS1. Hence, our combined data-model interpretation suggests that intervals with higher salinity in the Agulhas Current source region are not necessarily an indicator for an increased salt import via the I-AOG into the South Atlantic.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-11-25
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Waelbroeck, C., Lougheed, B. C., Riveiros, N. V., Missiaen, L., Pedro, J., Dokken, T., Hajdas, I., Wacker, L., Abbott, P., Dumoulin, J., Thil, F., Eynaud, F., Rossignol, L., Fersi, W., Albuquerque, A. L., Arz, H., Austin, W. E. N., Came, R., Carlson, A. E., Collins, J. A., Dennielou, B., Desprat, S., Dickson, A., Elliot, M., Farmer, C., Giraudeau, J., Gottschalk, J., Henderiks, J., Hughen, K., Jung, S., Knutz, P., Lebreiro, S., Lund, D. C., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Malaize, B., Marchitto, T., Martinez-Mendez, G., Mollenhauer, G., Naughton, F., Nave, S., Nuernberg, D., Oppo, D., Peck, V., Peeters, F. J. C., Penaud, A., Portilho-Ramos, R. d. C., Repschlaeger, J., Roberts, J., Ruehlemann, C., Salgueiro, E., Goni, M. F. S., Schonfeld, J., Scussolini, P., Skinner, L. C., Skonieczny, C., Thornalley, D., Toucanne, S., Van Rooij, D., Vidal, L., Voelker, A. H. L., Wary, M., Weldeab, S., & Ziegler, M. Consistently dated Atlantic sediment cores over the last 40 thousand years. Scientific Data, 6, (2019): 165, doi:10.1038/s41597-019-0173-8.
    Description: Rapid changes in ocean circulation and climate have been observed in marine-sediment and ice cores over the last glacial period and deglaciation, highlighting the non-linear character of the climate system and underlining the possibility of rapid climate shifts in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. To date, these rapid changes in climate and ocean circulation are still not fully explained. One obstacle hindering progress in our understanding of the interactions between past ocean circulation and climate changes is the difficulty of accurately dating marine cores. Here, we present a set of 92 marine sediment cores from the Atlantic Ocean for which we have established age-depth models that are consistent with the Greenland GICC05 ice core chronology, and computed the associated dating uncertainties, using a new deposition modeling technique. This is the first set of consistently dated marine sediment cores enabling paleoclimate scientists to evaluate leads/lags between circulation and climate changes over vast regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Moreover, this data set is of direct use in paleoclimate modeling studies.
    Description: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013 Grant agreement n° 339108). New 14C dates for cores EW9209-1JPC and V29-202 were funded by NSF OCE grants to DWO. FN, ES and AV acknowledge FCT funding support through project UID/Multi/04326/2019. We thank T. Garlan and P. Guyomard for having given us access to cores from the Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine. We acknowledge N. Smialkowski for help with formatting the data into text files, and L. Mauclair, L. Leroy and G. Isguder for the picking of numerous foraminifer samples for radiocarbon dating. We are grateful to S. Obrochta, E. Cortijo, E. Michel, F. Bassinot, J.C. Duplessy, and L. Labeyrie for advice and fruitful discussions. This paper is LSCE contribution 6572.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-04-26
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Progress in Earth and Planetary Science 5 (2018): 19, doi:10.1186/s40645-018-0167-8.
    Description: The Quaternary hemipelagic sediments of the Japan Sea are characterized by centimeter- to decimeter-scale alternation of dark and light clay to silty clay, which are bio-siliceous and/or bio-calcareous to a various degree. Each of the dark and light layers are considered as deposited synchronously throughout the deeper (〉 500 m) part of the sea. However, attempts for correlation and age estimation of individual layers are limited to the upper few tens of meters. In addition, the exact timing of the depositional onset of these dark and light layers and its synchronicity throughout the deeper part of the sea have not been explored previously, although the onset timing was roughly estimated as ~ 1.5 Ma based on the result of Ocean Drilling Program legs 127/128. Consequently, it is not certain exactly when their deposition started, whether deposition of dark and light layers was synchronous and whether they are correlatable also in the earlier part of their depositional history. The Quaternary hemipelagic sediments of the Japan Sea were drilled at seven sites during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 346 in 2013. Alternation of dark and light layers was recovered at six sites whose water depths are 〉 ~ 900 m, and continuous composite columns were constructed at each site. Here, we report our effort to correlate individual dark layers and estimate their ages based on a newly constructed age model at Site U1424 using the best available paleomagnetic datum and marker tephras. The age model is further tuned to LR04 δ18O curve using gamma ray attenuation density (GRA) since it reflects diatom contents that are higher during interglacial high-stands. The constructed age model for Site U1424 is projected to other sites using correlation of dark layers to form a high-resolution and high-precision paleo-observatory network that allows to reconstruct changes in material fluxes with high spatio-temporal resolutions.
    Description: This work was supported by a grant from IODP Exp. 346 After Cruise Research Program, JAMSTEC, awarded to TR, IK, Irino T, Itaki T, ST, KY, SS, and KA and from JSPS KAKENHI grant number 16H01765 awarded to TR.
    Keywords: Quaternary sediments ; Japan Sea ; Inter-site correlation ; High-resolution age model ; IODP ; Expedition 346 ; U1424 ; U1425 ; U1426 ; U1430
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2015. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of American Association for the Advancement of Science for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Science 349 (2015): 706-710, doi:10.1126/science.aaa9554.
    Description: Changes in the formation of dense water in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas (the ‘Arctic Mediterranean’, AM) likely contributed to the altered climate of the last glacial period. We examine past changes in AM circulation by reconstructing 14C ventilation ages of the deep Nordic Seas over the last 30,000 years. Our results show that the deep glacial AM was extremely poorly ventilated (ventilation ages of up to 10,000 years). Subsequent episodic overflow of aged water into the mid-depth North Atlantic occurred during deglaciation. Proxy data also suggest the deep glacial AM was ~2-3°C warmer than modern; deglacial mixing of the deep AM with the upper ocean thus potentially contributed to melting sea-ice and icebergs, as well as proximal terminal ice-sheet margins.
    Description: Funding was provided by a WHOI OCCI scholarship and OCCI grant 27071264 (DJRT); WHOI OCCI and NSF grants OIA-1124880 and OCE-1357121 (GG); the WHOI J. Lamar Worzel Assistant Scientist Fund, the Penzance Endowed Fund in Support of Assistant Scientists and NSF ANT-1246387 (WG); EU FP7 Marie Curie grant No. 298513 (MZ), grant DP140101393 (JY); and NERC grant NE/J008133/1 (SB).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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