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  • 2015-2019  (300)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: Direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) between two air masses with a temperature difference of 70 K is presented using compressible Navier-Stokes formulation in a non-equilibrium thermodynamic framework. The two-dimensional flow is studied in an isolated box with non-periodic walls in both vertical and horizontal directions. The non-conducting interface separating the two air masses is impulsively removed at t = 0 (depicting a heaviside function). No external perturbation has been used at the interface to instigate the instability at the onset. Computations have been carried out for rectangular and square cross sections. The formulation is free of Boussinesq approximation commonly used in many Navier-Stokes formulations for RTI. Effect of Stokes’ hypothesis is quantified, by using models from acoustic attenuation measurement for the second coefficient of viscosity from two experiments. Effects of Stokes’ hypothesis on growth of mixing layer and evolution of total entropy for the Rayleigh-Taylor system are reported. The initial rate of growth is observed to be independent of Stokes’ hypothesis and the geometry of the box. Following this stage, growth rate is dependent on the geometry of the box and is sensitive to the model used. As a consequence of compressible formulation, we capture pressure wave-packets with associated reflection and rarefaction from the non-periodic walls. The pattern and frequency of reflections of pressure waves noted specifically at the initial stages are reflected in entropy variation of the system.
    Print ISSN: 1070-6631
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7666
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-11-25
    Description: Interspecific competition in bacteria governs colony growth dynamics and pattern formation. Here, we demonstrate an interesting phenomenon of interspecific competition between Bacillus cereus MSM-S1 and Pseudomonas sp . MSM-M1, where secretion of an inhibitor by Pseudomonas sp . is used as a strategy for survival. Although B. cereus grows faster than Pseudomonas sp., in the presence of Pseudomonas sp. the population of B. cereus reduces significantly, whereas Pseudomonas sp. do not show any marked alteration in their population growth. Appearance of a zone of inhibition between growing colonies of two species on nutrient agar prevents the expanding front of the MSM-S1 colony from accessing and depleting nutrients in the region occupied by MSM-M1, thereby aiding the survival of the slower growing MSM-M1 colonies. To support our experimental results, we present simulations, based on a chemotactic model of colony growth dynamics. We demonstrate that the chemical(s) secreted by Pseudomonas sp. is responsible for the observed inhibition of growth and spatial pattern of the B. cereus MSM-S1 colony. Our experimental results are in excellent agreement with the numerical results and confirm that secreted inhibitors enable Pseudomonas sp. to survive and coexist in the presence of faster growing B. cereus , in a common niche.
    Keywords: microbiology, theoretical biology, ecology
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-07-29
    Description: Colloidal particles were exposed to a random potential energy landscape that has been created optically via a speckle pattern. The mean particle density as well as the potential roughness, i.e., the disorder strength, were varied. The local probability density of the particles as well as its main characteristics were determined. For the first time, the disorder-averaged pair density correlation function g (1) ( r ) and an analogue of the Edwards-Anderson order parameter g (2) ( r ), which quantifies the correlation of the mean local density among disorder realisations, were measured experimentally and shown to be consistent with replica liquid state theory results.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9606
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7690
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 4
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    Basel: MDPI
    Publication Date: 2017-12-02
    Description: We consider the problem of testing for a structural break in the spatial lag parameter in a panel model (spatial autoregressive). We propose a likelihood ratio test of the null hypothesis of no break against the alternative hypothesis of a single break. The limiting distribution of the test is derived under the null when both the number of individual units N and the number of time periods T is large or N is fixed and T is large. The asymptotic critical values of the test statistic can be obtained analytically. We also propose a break-date estimator that can be employed to determine the location of the break point following evidence against the null hypothesis. We present Monte Carlo evidence to show that the proposed procedure performs well in finite samples. Finally, we consider an empirical application of the test on budget spillovers and interdependence in fiscal policy within the U.S. states.
    Keywords: C01 ; C22 ; C23 ; H72 ; ddc:330 ; panel model ; structural change ; spatial econometrics ; spatio-temporal ; U.S. state budget
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 5
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    New Delhi: Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: India's merchandise trade has been growing in importance in recent years with increases in share in world exports and imports (Economic Survey, 2013-14). However with fragmentation of production process across countries, higher exports can no longer be linked to higher production as imports of intermediate products which are used in exports also increase. Against this background, it is very important to understand the contribution made to a product within the confines of the geographic boundaries of that economy. The present study estimates and analyzes the import content in Indian exports at a disaggregated industry level using the Hummel et al. (2001) approach used in this strand of empirical literature, as for instance applied by Koopmans, Wang and Wei (2008). The analysis highlights several interesting patterns. First, for India's exports, the import content in exports increased steadily from about 11 percent to about 22 percent in the time period 1995 to 2011. The rise in import content was relatively greater for merchandize exports from about 11 percent in 1995 to about 26 percent in 2011. In services exports, by contrast, the foreign value added content is relatively low and the increase has been rather modest. Second, at an individual commodity level (based on Input-output table classification), the decline in domestic value added content was associated with a simultaneous increase in foreign value added share for a majority of the commodities, indicating the pervasiveness of international fragmentation. Finally, a comparison of foreign value added share in aggregate exports with other emerging economies shows that in terms of degree of integration in global value chains, India lags behind most important emerging economies - Taiwan, Korea, Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand and China.
    Keywords: F6 ; F14 ; O53 ; ddc:330 ; Value added trade ; Import content and Exports
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: The Government of India has enacted the National Food Security Act (NFSA) on September 12, 2013. The NFSA aims to provide subsidized food grains to approximately two thirds of India's population. The legislation is a landmark, and perhaps the largest food security program in the world. The ambitious programme of the Government, besides offering several opportunities, throws many challenges in its implementation. In this background, the current paper evaluates the widespread impact of implementing NFSA on the Indian economy. The study applied a modified Leontief and Ghosh model under Input-output framework. The study also assessed the environmental impact of this act focusing on various environmental indicators. Further, the additional land requirement, labour generation and GDP growth that NFSA entails have also been computed. The impacts on sectoral prices have also been calculated. The result shows that the food grain sector has to grow by 3.75 % annually to match provision of food grains according to the norm set by the act. Apart from the targeted food grains sector, we noticed some indirect impact on other sectors such as Chemicals and Chemical Products, Mineral Fuels, Live stock products and Other Oilseeds and Crops. Overall the country needs to gear up in terms of food grain productivity, otherwise, NFSA must be supplemented by import, which would entail huge burden to country's exchequer. On the other hand, the additional GDP and labour growth is expected to generate 1.51 % and 6.21 % respectively due to NFSA compared to 2016-17. But the impact on the environment is also not favourable. The economy is likely to generate additional GHG emissions of 10.39 million metric tonne of CO2 equivalent due to this act. A significant generation of water pollution is also expected. The overall land requirement on account of NFSA has been found to be sizeable whose availability remains as a big constraint. The study also throws some insight on the achievements of The Millennium Development Goals in the context of NFSA. In the context of Indian sub-continent, we find a perfect synergy between the basic objective of National Food Security Act and Millennium Development Goal. Overall, NFSA impact will enhance the growth of the economy. However, additional pressure on environment and land cannot be ignored. For sustainable food grains production in the economy, the nation should consider the improvement of agriculture productivity as well as to minimize the environmental effect by introducing more sustainable farming practice.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Warsaw: University of Finance and Management in Warsaw, Faculty of Management and Finance
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: The interconnected issues of commodity price fluctuation, unemployment and balance of trade developments are of critical importance in times of globalization. The present paper addresses these issues in terms of a monetary dependent economy macro model that applies to a large class of emerging market economies that export their primary products. However, there exists a manufacturing sector that produces non-traded goods using imported capital goods as an input. Moreover, in such an emerging economy, the stocks of primary commodities constitute a widely used financial asset, among other assets. Thus, the price of these primary commodities behaves as an asset price, which has significant implications for the nature of the interlinkage between the real sector and the financial sector of the economy. In an absence of any capital account transactions, and under a fixed exchange rate regime, the paper examines the effects of supply shock, devaluation, capital flow and fiscal policy on major macro variables, including terms of trade, the stock of primary commodities and real money balances. The result points to the contractionary implications of devaluation, while an exogenous increase in food production produces favorable macroeconomic outcomes.
    Keywords: E6 ; F41 ; F62 ; ddc:330 ; Commodity price fluctuation ; unemployment ; emerging market Economies ; globalization ; dependent economy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-06-06
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 97 (2016): 1859–1884, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00197.1.
    Description: Air–Sea Interactions in the Northern Indian Ocean (ASIRI) is an international research effort (2013–17) aimed at understanding and quantifying coupled atmosphere–ocean dynamics of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) with relevance to Indian Ocean monsoons. Working collaboratively, more than 20 research institutions are acquiring field observations coupled with operational and high-resolution models to address scientific issues that have stymied the monsoon predictability. ASIRI combines new and mature observational technologies to resolve submesoscale to regional-scale currents and hydrophysical fields. These data reveal BoB’s sharp frontal features, submesoscale variability, low-salinity lenses and filaments, and shallow mixed layers, with relatively weak turbulent mixing. Observed physical features include energetic high-frequency internal waves in the southern BoB, energetic mesoscale and submesoscale features including an intrathermocline eddy in the central BoB, and a high-resolution view of the exchange along the periphery of Sri Lanka, which includes the 100-km-wide East India Coastal Current (EICC) carrying low-salinity water out of the BoB and an adjacent, broad northward flow (∼300 km wide) that carries high-salinity water into BoB during the northeast monsoon. Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) observations during the decaying phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) permit the study of multiscale atmospheric processes associated with non-MJO phenomena and their impacts on the marine boundary layer. Underway analyses that integrate observations and numerical simulations shed light on how air–sea interactions control the ABL and upper-ocean processes.
    Description: This work was sponsored by the U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR) in an ONR Departmental Research Initiative (DRI), Air–Sea Interactions in Northern Indian Ocean (ASIRI), and in a Naval Research Laboratory project, Effects of Bay of Bengal Freshwater Flux on Indian Ocean Monsoon (EBOB). ASIRI–RAWI was funded under the NASCar DRI of the ONR. The Indian component of the program, Ocean Mixing and Monsoons (OMM), was supported by the Ministry of Earth Sciences of India.
    Description: 2017-04-22
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-09
    Description: Author Posting. © The Oceanography Society, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of The Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 29, no. 2 (2016): 134–145, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2016.46.
    Description: The structure and variability of upper-ocean properties in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) modulate air-sea interactions, which profoundly influence the pattern and intensity of monsoonal precipitation across the Indian subcontinent. In turn, the bay receives a massive amount of freshwater through river input at its boundaries and from heavy local rainfall, leading to a salinity-stratified surface ocean and shallow mixed layers. Small-scale oceanographic processes that drive variability in near-surface BoB waters complicate the tight coupling between ocean and atmosphere implicit in this seasonal feedback. Unraveling these ocean dynamics and their impact on air-sea interactions is critical to improving the forecasting of intraseasonal variability in the southwest monsoon. To that end, we deployed a wave-powered, rapidly profiling system capable of measuring the structure and variability of the upper 100 m of the BoB. The evolution of upper-ocean structure along the trajectory of the instrument’s roughly two-week drift, along with direct estimates of vertical fluxes of salt and heat, permit assessment of the contributions of various phenomena to temporal and spatial variability in the surface mixed layer depth. Further, these observations suggest that the particular “barrier-layer” stratification found in the BoB may decrease the influence of the wind on mixing processes in the interior, thus isolating the upper ocean from the interior below, and tightening its coupling to the atmosphere above.
    Description: This work was accomplished with Office of Naval Research support under the umbrella of the Air-Sea Interactions Regional Initiative (ASIRI). AJL was specifically supported by ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0489.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-09-09
    Description: Author Posting. © The Oceanography Society, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of The Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 29, no. 2 (2016): 14–17, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2016.34.
    Description: The Bay of Bengal has a surprisingly large influence on the world. It nurtures the South Asian summer monsoon, a tremendous ocean-atmosphere-land phenomenon that delivers freshwater to more than a third of the human population on this planet. During summer, southwesterly winds gather moisture from the ocean and carry it deep inland over the Indian subcontinent, bringing welcome rains to a parched land. During winter, the winds reverse to northeasterly, and the ocean circulation responds by dispersing the terrestrial freshwater runoff concentrated in the northern part of the bay. This freshwater impacts the ocean’s structure, circulation, and biogeochemistry in numerous ways and, through modification of sea surface temperature, feeds back to influence air-sea fluxes. Because the atmosphere obtains its moisture and heat for convection from the ocean, the interplay between ocean and atmosphere is crucial for the development and sustenance of the monsoon.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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