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  • 2015-2019  (4)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-04-27
    Description: We report investigations of capacitively coupled carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4 ) plasmas excited with tailored voltage waveforms containing up to five harmonics of a base frequency of 5.5 MHz. The impact of both the slope asymmetry, and the amplitude asymmetry, of these waveforms on the discharge is examined by combining experiments with particle-in-cell simulations. For all conditions studied herein, the discharge is shown to operate in the drift-ambipolar mode, where a comparatively large electric field in the plasma bulk (outside the sheaths) is the main mechanism for electron power absorption leading to ionization. We show that both types of waveform asymmetries strongly influence the ion energy at the electrodes, with the particularity of having the highest ion flux on the electrode where the lowest ion energy is observed. Even at the comparatively high pressure (600 mTorr) and low fundamental frequency of 5.5 MHz used here, tailoring the voltage waveforms is shown to efficiently create an asymmetry of both the ion energy and the ion flux in geometrically symmetric reactors.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8979
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7550
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-05-21
    Description: Aims Functional traits are supposed to play an important role in determining the colonization success of new species into established communities. Short-term experimental studies have documented higher resistance of more diverse grasslands against colonization by new species. However, little is known about which traits colonizers should have to successfully invade diverse plant communities in the longer term and how community history may modify the resistance of diverse communities against colonization. Methods In a grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment) established with different species richness (SR; 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16) and functional group (FG) number and composition (1 to 4; legumes, grasses, small herbs, tall herbs), we studied colonization of naturally dispersed species in split-plots (i) with different duration of weeding (never weeded, weeded for 3 or 6 years and then un-weeded for 1 year) and (ii) with different duration of colonization (7 years, 4 years and 1 year after cessation of weeding). Important Findings Resistance against colonization by new species declined with increased duration of weeding (on average 13, 17 and 22 colonizer species in 1-, 4- and 7-year-old communities, respectively). Communities established at low diversity accumulated more colonizer species with a longer duration of weeding than more diverse communities. Duration of colonization had only small effects on the number of colonizer species. Colonizers with early successional traits, i.e. annual life cycle, reproduction by seeds, small seeds, long-lived seeds and an earlier start of a longer flowering period, were favoured in species-poor newly established experimental plant communities (short duration of weeding) and early after cessation of weeding (short duration of colonization). A change from early- to mid-successional traits, i.e. taller growth, perennial life cycle, vegetative reproduction, characterized colonization at increased plant diversity and in communities with legumes or without grasses. Legume absence/grass presence and increased duration of weeding led to a shift in colonizer strategies from rapid nutrient uptake and cycling (higher specific leaf area) to nutrient retention and symbiotic N 2 fixation. Our study shows that non-random trait spectra of naturally dispersed colonizers encompass trade-offs between different functions (reproduction, persistence, growth) reflected in a change from early- to mid-successional traits at increasing plant diversity, with a longer duration of weeding and a longer time of colonization.
    Print ISSN: 1752-993X
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-9921
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-12-07
    Description: Here we investigate the vegetation history and peat accumulation at the eastern boarder of the West Siberian Plain, near the Yenisey River, south of permafrost. In this region, peat started to accumulate 15 000 years ago as gyttja of shallow lakes in ancient river valleys. This peat is older than previously reported, mainly due to separating particulate organic carbon (POC) from dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which was 1900–6500 years younger than POC. The probability of finding peat layers older than 12 000 years is about 2 %. Peat accumulated as fen peat at a constant rate of 0.2 mm yr−1 and 0.01 kg C m−2 yr−1. The accumulation was higher in ancient river valley environments. Over the last 2000 years these bogs changed into Sphagnum mires which have accumulated up to about 0.1 kg C m−2 yr−1 until present. The long-lasting fen stage, which makes the Yenisey bogs distinct from the western Siberian bogs, is discussed as a consequence of the local hydrology. The high accumulation rate of peat in unfrozen mires is taken as an indication that thawing of permafrost peat may also change northern peatlands into long-lasting carbon sinks.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-07-17
    Description: Here we investigate the vegetation history and peat accumulation at the eastern boarder of the West Siberian plain, near the river Yenisey, south of permafrost. In this region peat started to accumulate 15 000 yr ago as gyttia of shallow lakes in ancient river valleys. This peat is older than previously reported mainly due to separating particulate organic carbon (POC) from dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which was 1900 to 6500 yr younger than POC. The probability to finding peat layers older than 12 000 yr is about 2 %. Peat accumulated as fen-peat at a constant rate of 0.2 mm yr−1 and 0.01 kg C m2 yr−1. The accumulation was higher in ancient river valley environments. Since 2000 yr these bogs changed into Sphagnum mires which accumulate up to about 0.1 kg C m2 yr−1 until present. The long-lasting fen stage, which makes the Yenisey bogs distinct from the West Siberian bogs is discussed as a consequence of the local hydrology. The high accumulation rate of peat in un-frozen mires is taken as an indication that thawing of permafrost peat may change northern peatlands also into long-lasting carbon sinks.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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