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  • 2015-2019  (26)
  • 1
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    Unknown
    In:  [Talk] In: Leipziger Meteorologisches Kolloquium, 10.12.2015, Leipzig, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-04-12
    Description: Highlights: • Sensitivities of annual carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flux estimates to parameter variations are determined. • Model parameters that specify annual inventories are compared with those that determine timing and magnitude of bloom events. • Seven model parameters are of primary importance, affecting C, N and P budgets simultaneously. • Nine parameters have negligible effects on annual budget estimates and on seasonal trajectories. • Parameter categorization provides important prior information for parameter optimization in the central Baltic Sea. Abstract: This study describes a sensitivity analysis that allows the parameters of a one-dimensional ecosystem model to be ranked according to their specificity in determining biochemical key fluxes. Key fluxes of interest are annual (a) total production (TP), (b) remineralization above the halocline (RM), and (c) export at 50 m (EX) at the Baltic Sea monitoring site BY15 located in the Gotland Deep basin. The model resolves mass flux of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P), while considering nitrogen fixation explicitly. Our first null hypothesis is that the variation of the value of every single model parameter affects each annual C, N, and P budget simultaneously. Our second null hypothesis states that the variation of every parameter value induces changes at least in either of the annual C, N or P budgets. Our analyses falsify both null hypotheses and reveal that 8 out of 36 parameters must be regarded redundant, as their variation neither alter annual key fluxes nor produce considerable time-shifts in model trajectories at the respective site. Seven parameters were found to induce substantial changes in annual C, N, and P flux estimates simultaneously. The assimilation efficiency of zooplankton turned out to be of vital importance. This parameter discriminates between the assimilation and destruction of algal prey during grazing. The fraction of unassimilated dead algal cells is critical for the amount of organic matter exported out of the euphotic zone. The maximum cellular N:C quota of diazotrophs and the degradation/hydrolysis rate of detrital carbon are two parameters that will likely remain unconstrained by time series data, but both affect the annual C budget considerably. Overall, our detailed specification of model sensitivities to parameter variations will facilitate the formulation of a well-posed inverse problem for the estimation of C, N and P fluxes from stock observations at the Gotland Deep.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Biogeosciences (BG), 14 (7). pp. 1883-1901.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Mesocosm experiments on phytoplankton dynamics under high CO2 concentrations mimic the response of marine primary producers to future ocean acidification. However, potential acidification effects can be hindered by the high standard deviation typically found in the replicates of the same CO2 treatment level. In experiments with multiple unresolved factors and a sub-optimal number of replicates, post-processing statistical inference tools might fail to detect an effect that is present. We propose that in such cases, data-based model analyses might be suitable tools to unearth potential responses to the treatment and identify the uncertainties that could produce the observed variability. As test cases, we used data from two independent mesocosm experiments. Both experiments showed high standard deviations and, according to statistical inference tools, biomass appeared insensitive to changing CO2 conditions. Conversely, our simulations showed earlier and more intense phytoplankton blooms in modeled replicates at high CO2 concentrations and suggested that uncertainties in average cell size, phytoplankton biomass losses, and initial nutrient concentration potentially outweigh acidification effects by triggering strong variability during the bloom phase. We also estimated the thresholds below which uncertainties do not escalate to high variability. This information might help in designing future mesocosm experiments and interpreting controversial results on the effect of acidification or other pressures on ecosystem functions
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    In:  [Talk] In: PalMod Annual Retreat, 22.02.2017, Lübeck, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2017-11-08
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    In:  [Poster] In: Priority Program 1704 DynaTrait annual meeting, 08.-11.10.2018, Potsdam, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Estuary-type circulation is a residual circulation in coastal systems with horizontal density gradients. It drives the accumulation of suspended particulate matter in coastal embayments where density gradients are sustained by some freshwater inflow from rivers. Ebenhöh et al. (Ecol Model 174(3):241–252, 2004) found that shallow water depth can explain nutrient gradients becoming established towards the coast even in the absence of river inflow. The present study follows their concept and investigates the characteristic transport of organic matter towards the coast based on idealised scenarios whereby an estuary-type circulation is maintained by surface freshwater fluxes and pronounced shoaling towards the coast. A coupled hydrodynamical and biogeochemical model is used to simulate the dynamics of nutrient gradients and to derive budgets of organic matter flux for a coastal transect. Horizontal nutrient gradients are considered only in terms of tidal asymmetries of suspended matter transport. The results show that the accumulation of organic matter near the coast is not only highly sensitive to variations in the sinking velocity of suspended matter but is also noticeably enhanced by an increase in precipitation. This scenario is comparable with North Sea conditions. By contrast, horizontal nutrient gradients would be reversed in the case of evaporation-dominated inverse estuaries (cf. reverse gradients of nutrient and organic matter concentrations). Credible coastal nutrient budget calculations are required for resolving trends in eutrophication. For tidal systems, the present results suggest that these calculations require an explicit consideration of freshwater flux and asymmetries in tidal mixing. In the present case, the nutrient budget for the vertically mixed zone also indicates carbon pumping from the shelf sea towards the coast from as far offshore as 25 km.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Biogeosciences (BG), 14 (7). pp. 1857-1882.
    Publication Date: 2019-05-23
    Description: The effect of ocean acidification on growth and calcification of the marine algae Emiliania huxleyi was investigated in a series of mesocosm experiments where enclosed water volumes that comprised a natural plankton community were exposed to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Calcification rates observed during those experiments were found to be highly variable, even among replicate mesocosms that were subject to similar CO2 perturbations. Here, data from an ocean acidification mesocosm experiment are reanalysed with an optimality-based dynamical plankton model. According to our model approach, cellular calcite formation is sensitive to variations in CO2 at the organism level. We investigate the temporal changes and variability in observations, with a focus on resolving observed differences in total alkalinity and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC). We explore how much of the variability in the data can be explained by variations of the initial conditions and by the level of CO2 perturbation. Nine mesocosms of one experiment were sorted into three groups of high, medium, and low calcification rates and analysed separately. The spread of the three optimised ensemble model solutions captures most of the observed variability. Our results show that small variations in initial abundance of coccolithophores and the prevailing physiological acclimation states generate differences in calcification that are larger than those induced by ocean acidification. Accordingly, large deviations between optimal mass flux estimates of carbon and of nitrogen are identified even between mesocosms that were subject to similar ocean acidification conditions. With our model-based data analysis we document how an ocean acidification response signal in calcification can be disentangled from the observed variability in PIC.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-30
    Description: A central aspect of coastal biogeochemistry is to determine how nutrients, lithogenic- and organic matter are distributed and transformed within coastal and estuarine environments. Analyses of the spatio-temporal changes of total suspended matter (TSM) concentration indicate strong and variable linkages between intertidal fringes and pelagic regions. In particular, knowledge about the organic fraction of TSM provides insight to how biogenic and lithogenic particulate matter are distributed in suspension. In our study we take advantage of a set of over 3000 in situ Loss on Ignition (LoI) data from the Southern North Sea that represent fractions of particulate organic matter (POM) relative to TSM (LoI $\equiv$ POM:TSM). We introduce a parameterization (POM-TSM model) that distinguishes between two POM fractions incorporated in TSM. One fraction is described in association with mineral particles. The other represents a seasonally varying fresh pool of POM. The performance of the POM-TSM model is tested against data derived from MERIS/ENVISAT-TSM products of the German Bight. Our analysis of remote sensing data exhibits specific qualitative features of TSM that can be attributed to distinct coastal zones. Most interestingly, a transition zone between the Wadden Sea and seasonally stratified regions of the Southern North Sea is identified where mineral associated POM appears in concentrations comparable to those of freshly produced POM. We will discuss how this transition is indicative for a zone of effective particle interaction and sedimentation.The dimension of this transition zone varies between seasons and with location. Our proposed POM-TSM model is generic and can be calibrated against in situ data of other coastal regions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-30
    Description: Chlorophyll (chl a) concentration in coastal seas exhibits variability on various spatial and temporal scales. Resuspension of particulate matter can somewhat limit algal growth, but can also enhance productivity because of the intrusion of nutrient-rich pore water from sediments or bottom water layers into the whole water column. This study investigates whether characteristic changes in net phytoplankton growth can be directly linked to resuspension events within the German Bight. Satellite-derived chl a were used to derive spatial patterns of net rates of chl a increase/decrease (NR) in 2003 and 2004. Spatial correlations between NR and mean water column irradiance were analysed. High correlations in space and time were found in most areas of the German Bight (R2 〉 0.4), suggesting a tight coupling between light availability and algal growth during spring. These correlations were reduced within a distinct zone in the transition between shallow coastal areas and deeper offshore waters. In summer and autumn, a mismatch was found between phytoplankton blooms (chl a 〉 6 mg m−3) and spring-tidal induced resuspension events as indicated by bottom velocity, suggesting that there is no phytoplankton resuspension during spring tides. It is instead proposed here that frequent and recurrent spring-tidal resuspension events enhance algal growth by supplying remineralized nutrients. This hypothesis is corroborated by a lag correlation analysis between resuspension events and in-situ measured nutrient concentrations. This study outlines seasonally different patterns in phytoplankton productivity in response to variations in resuspension, which can serve as a reference for modelling coastal ecosystem dynamics.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Engel, Anja; Cisternas Novoa, Carolina; Wurst, Mascha; Endres, Sonja; Tang, Tiantian; Schartau, Markus; Lee, Cindy (2014): No detectable effect of CO2 on elemental stoichiometry of Emiliania huxleyi in nutrient-limited, acclimated continuous cultures. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 507, 15-30, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10824
    Publication Date: 2019-09-18
    Description: Effects of CO2 concentration on elemental composition of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi were studied in phosphorus-limited, continuous cultures that were acclimated to experimental conditions for 30 d prior to the first sampling. We determined phytoplankton and bacterial cell numbers, nutrients, particulate components like organic carbon (POC), inorganic carbon (PIC), nitrogen (PN), organic phosphorus (POP), transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), in addition to carbonate system parameters at CO2 levels of 180, 380 and 750 µatm. No significant difference between treatments was observed for any of the measured variables during repeated sampling over a 14 d period. We considered several factors that might lead to these results, i.e. light, nutrients, carbon overconsumption and transient versus steady-state growth. We suggest that the absence of a clear CO2 effect during this study does not necessarily imply the absence of an effect in nature. Instead, the sensitivity of the cell towards environmental stressors such as CO2 may vary depending on whether growth conditions are transient or sufficiently stable to allow for optimal allocation of energy and resources. We tested this idea on previously published data sets where PIC and POC divided by the corresponding cell abundance of E. huxleyi at various pCO2 levels and growth rates were available.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 3723 data points
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