ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • 2015-2019  (188)
Collection
Year
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The PALS Land sUrface Model Benchmarking Evaluation pRoject (PLUMBER) illustrated the value of prescribing a priori performance targets in model intercomparisons. It showed that the performance of turbulent energy flux predictions from different land surface models, at a broad range of flux tower sites using common evaluation metrics, was on average worse than relatively simple empirical models. For sensible heat fluxes, all land surface models were outperformed by a linear regression against downward shortwave radiation. For latent heat flux, all land surface models were outperformed by a regression against downward shortwave, surface air temperature and relative humidity. These results are explored here in greater detail and possible causes are investigated. We examine whether particular metrics or sites unduly influence the collated results, whether results change according to time-scale aggregation and whether a lack of energy conservation in fluxtower data gives the empirical models an unfair advantage in the intercomparison. We demonstrate that energy conservation in the observational data is not responsible for these results. We also show that the partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes in LSMs, rather than the calculation of available energy, is the cause of the original findings. Finally, we present evidence suggesting that the nature of this partitioning problem is likely shared among all contributing LSMs. While we do not find a single candidate explanation forwhy land surface models perform poorly relative to empirical benchmarks in PLUMBER, we do exclude multiple possible explanations and provide guidance on where future research should focus.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41031 , Journal of Hydrometeorology (ISSN 1525-755X) (e-ISSN 1525-7541); 17; 6; 1705-1723
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-02-03
    Description: ABSTRACT We use the Weather Research and Forecast model and estimate anthropogenic heat (AH) fluxes based on fine-scale energy consumption data for Sydney, Australia, to investigate the effects of urbanization on temperature. We examine both the impact of urban canopy effects (UCE) and AH which in combination causes the urban heat island effect. Sydney's urban heat island (UHI) varies from −1 to 〉3.4 °C between day and night and between seasons. UHI intensity is highest at night and an urban cool island is often experienced during the day. UCE contributes 80% of the UHI during summer nights because of the release of stored heat from urban infrastructure that has been absorbed during the day. During the day for UCE, the reduced net radiation and greater heat storage by urban infrastructure combine to slightly cool. In contrast, AH contributes 90% of the UHI during winter nights because it does not dissipate into the higher levels of the boundary layer efficiently. The opposite applies during summer nights and during daytime in both summer and winter where heat mixes effectively into the atmosphere. Our results show contrasting impacts of UCE and AH by time of day and time of year and point to major simulation biases if only one of these phenomena is represented, or if their seasonal contributions are not accounted for separately.
    Print ISSN: 0899-8418
    Electronic ISSN: 1097-0088
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-02-14
    Description: Two-wing flyingfish ( Exocoetus spp .) are widely distributed, epipelagic, mid-trophic organisms that feed on zooplankton and are preyed upon by numerous predators (e.g., tunas, dolphinfish, tropical seabirds), yet an understanding of their speciation and systematics is lacking. As a model of epipelagic fish speciation and to investigate mechanisms that increase biodiversity, we studied the phylogeny and biogeography of Exocoetus , a highly abundant holoepipelagic fish taxon of the tropical open ocean. Morphological and molecular data were used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships, species boundaries, and biogeographic patterns of the five putative Exocoetus species. We show that the most widespread species ( E. volitans ) is sister to all other species, and we find no evidence for cryptic species in this taxon. Sister relationship between E. monocirrhus (Indo-Pacific) and E. obtusirostris (Atlantic) indicates the Isthmus of Panama and/or Benguela Barrier may have played a role in their divergence via allopatric speciation. The sister species E. peruvianus and E. gibbosus are found in different regions of the Pacific Ocean; however, our molecular results do not show a clear distinction between these species, indicating recent divergence or ongoing gene flow. Overall, our phylogeny reveals that the most spatially restricted species are more recently derived, suggesting that allopatric barriers may drive speciation, but subsequent dispersal and range expansion may affect the distributions of species. Morphological and molecular data of two-wing flyingfish species analyzed within a phylogenetic context revealed three clear species definitions and two others that were less obvious. Cryptic species were not detected, and biogeographic patterns of speciation associated with species range size. Two-wing flyingfish are abundant mid-trophic fishes representative of the tropical epipelagos, such that other taxa within the same habitat should be investigated for similar patterns of phylogenetic history and biogeography, as well as speciation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: The Paris Agreement limits global average temperature rise to 2 °C and commits to pursuing efforts in limiting warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. This will require rapid reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases and the eventual decarbonisation of the global economy. Wind energy is an established technology to help achieve emissions reductions, with a cumulative global installed capacity of ~486 GW (2016). Focusing on Australia, we assess the future economic viability of wind energy using a 12-member ensemble of high-resolution regional climate simulations forced by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) output. We examine both near future (around 2030) and far future (around 2070) changes. Extractable wind power changes vary across the continent, though the most spatially coherent change is a small but significant decrease across southern regions. The cost of future wind energy generation, measured via the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE), increases negli...
    Print ISSN: 1748-9318
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-9326
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-08-26
    Description: Aridity is expected to increase globally in a warmer world. Research now suggests that this is substantially amplified by land–atmosphere feedbacks associated with the land surface’s response to climate and plant responses to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature Climate Change 6 869 doi: 10.1038/nclimate3029
    Print ISSN: 1758-678X
    Electronic ISSN: 1758-6798
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer Nature
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-10-08
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b08701
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-10-14
    Description: Land surface models (LSMs) must accurately simulate observed energy and water fluxes during droughts in order to provide reliable estimates of future water resources. We evaluated 8 different LSMs (14 model versions) for simulating evapotranspiration (ET) during periods of evaporative drought (Edrought) across six flux tower sites. Using an empirically defined Edrought threshold (a decline in ET below the observed 15th percentile), we show that LSMs simulated 58 Edrought days per year, on average, across the six sites, ∼3 times as many as the observed 20 d. The simulated Edrought magnitude was ∼8 times greater than observed and twice as intense. Our findings point to systematic biases across LSMs when simulating water and energy fluxes under water-stressed conditions. The overestimation of key Edrought characteristics undermines our confidence in the models’ capability in simulating realistic drought responses to climate change and has wider implications for phenomena sensitive ...
    Print ISSN: 1748-9318
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-9326
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-09-21
    Description: Using a global climate model, Amazonian deforestation experiments are conducted perturbing 1, 9, 25, 81 and 121 grid points, each with 5 ensemble members. All experiments show warming and drying over Amazonia. The impact of deforestation on temperature, averaged either over the affected area or a wider area, decreases by a factor of two as the scale of the perturbation increases from 1 to 121 grid points. This is associated with changes in the surface energy balance and consequential impacts on the atmosphere above the regions deforested. For precipitation, as the scale of deforestation increases from 9 to 121 grid points, the reduction in rainfall over the perturbed area decreases from ∼1.5 to ∼1 mm d −1 . However, if the surrounding area is considered and large deforestation perturbations made, compensatory increases in precipitation occur such that there is little net change. This is largely associated with changes in horizontal advection of moisture. Disagreements ...
    Print ISSN: 1748-9318
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-9326
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-03-20
    Description: Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brienen, R J W -- Phillips, O L -- Feldpausch, T R -- Gloor, E -- Baker, T R -- Lloyd, J -- Lopez-Gonzalez, G -- Monteagudo-Mendoza, A -- Malhi, Y -- Lewis, S L -- Vasquez Martinez, R -- Alexiades, M -- Alvarez Davila, E -- Alvarez-Loayza, P -- Andrade, A -- Aragao, L E O C -- Araujo-Murakami, A -- Arets, E J M M -- Arroyo, L -- Aymard C, G A -- Banki, O S -- Baraloto, C -- Barroso, J -- Bonal, D -- Boot, R G A -- Camargo, J L C -- Castilho, C V -- Chama, V -- Chao, K J -- Chave, J -- Comiskey, J A -- Cornejo Valverde, F -- da Costa, L -- de Oliveira, E A -- Di Fiore, A -- Erwin, T L -- Fauset, S -- Forsthofer, M -- Galbraith, D R -- Grahame, E S -- Groot, N -- Herault, B -- Higuchi, N -- Honorio Coronado, E N -- Keeling, H -- Killeen, T J -- Laurance, W F -- Laurance, S -- Licona, J -- Magnussen, W E -- Marimon, B S -- Marimon-Junior, B H -- Mendoza, C -- Neill, D A -- Nogueira, E M -- Nunez, P -- Pallqui Camacho, N C -- Parada, A -- Pardo-Molina, G -- Peacock, J -- Pena-Claros, M -- Pickavance, G C -- Pitman, N C A -- Poorter, L -- Prieto, A -- Quesada, C A -- Ramirez, F -- Ramirez-Angulo, H -- Restrepo, Z -- Roopsind, A -- Rudas, A -- Salomao, R P -- Schwarz, M -- Silva, N -- Silva-Espejo, J E -- Silveira, M -- Stropp, J -- Talbot, J -- ter Steege, H -- Teran-Aguilar, J -- Terborgh, J -- Thomas-Caesar, R -- Toledo, M -- Torello-Raventos, M -- Umetsu, R K -- van der Heijden, G M F -- van der Hout, P -- Guimaraes Vieira, I C -- Vieira, S A -- Vilanova, E -- Vos, V A -- Zagt, R J -- England -- Nature. 2015 Mar 19;519(7543):344-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14283.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. ; 1] School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. [2] Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Rennes Drive, Exeter EX4 4RJ, UK. ; 1] Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK. [2] School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Cairns, 4870 Queenland, Australia. ; Jardin Botanico de Missouri, Prolongacion Bolognesi Mz.e, Lote 6, Oxapampa, Pasco, Peru. ; Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QK, UK. ; 1] School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. [2] Department of Geography, University College London, Pearson Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; School of Anthropology and Conservation, Marlowe Building, University of Kent, Canterbury CT1 3EH, UK. ; Servicios Ecosistemicos y Cambio Climatico, Jardin Botanico de Medellin, Calle 73 no. 51 D-14, C.P. 050010, Medellin, Colombia. ; Center for Tropical Conservation, Duke University, Box 90381, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. ; Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragment Project (INPA &STRI), C.P. 478, Manaus AM 69011-970, Brazil. ; 1] Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Rennes Drive, Exeter EX4 4RJ, UK. [2] National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Av. Dos Astronautas, 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo 12227-010, Brazil. ; Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff Mercado, Universidad Autonoma Gabriel Rene Moreno, Casilla 2489, Av. Irala 565, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. ; Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. ; UNELLEZ-Guanare, Programa de Ciencias del Agro y el Mar, Herbario Universitario (PORT), Mesa de Cavacas, Estado Portuguesa, 3350 Venezuela. ; Biodiversiteit en Ecosysteem Dynamica, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; 1] Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR EcoFoG, Campus Agronomique, 97310 Kourou, French Guiana. [2] International Center for Tropical Botany, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199, USA. ; Universidade Federal do Acre, Campus de Cruzeiro do Sul, Rio Branco, Brazil. ; INRA, UMR 1137 ''Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestiere'' 54280 Champenoux, France. ; Embrapa Roraima, Caixa Postal 133, Boa Vista, RR, CEP 69301-970, Brazil. ; Universidad Nacional San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Av. de la Cultura N degrees 733, Cusco, Peru. ; 1] School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. [2] International Master Program of Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan. ; Universite Paul Sabatier CNRS, UMR 5174 Evolution et Diversite Biologique, Batiment 4R1, 31062 Toulouse, France. ; Northeast Region Inventory and Monitoring Program, National Park Service, 120 Chatham Lane, Fredericksburg, Virginia 22405, USA. ; Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program, Puerto Maldonado, Madre de Dios, Peru. ; Universidade Federal do Para, Centro de Geociencias, Belem, CEP 66017-970 Para, Brazil. ; Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso, Campus de Nova Xavantina, Caixa Postal 08, CEP 78.690-000, Nova Xavantina MT, Brazil. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Texas at Austin, SAC Room 5.150, 2201 Speedway Stop C3200, Austin, Texas 78712, USA. ; Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, MRC 187, Washington DC 20013-7012, USA. ; Cirad, UMR Ecologie des Forets de Guyane, Campus Agronomique, 97310 Kourou, French Guiana. ; 1] School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. [2] Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, Av. A. Jose Quinones km 2.5, Iquitos, Peru. ; World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street NW, Washington DC 20037, USA. ; Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science (TESS) and School of Marine and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland 4878, Australia. ; Instituto Boliviano de Investigacion Forestal, C.P. 6201, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. ; National Institute for Research in Amazonia (INPA), C.P. 478, Manaus, Amazonas, CEP 69011-970, Brazil. ; 1] FOMABO, Manejo Forestal en las Tierras Tropicales de Bolivia, Sacta, Bolivia. [2] Escuela de Ciencias Forestales (ESFOR), Universidad Mayor de San Simon (UMSS), Sacta, Bolivia. ; Universidad Estatal Amazonica, Facultad de Ingenieria Ambiental, Paso lateral km 2 1/2 via Napo, Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador. ; National Institute for Research in Amazonia (INPA), C.P. 2223, 69080-971, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. ; Universidad Autonoma del Beni, Campus Universitario, Av. Ejercito Nacional, Riberalta, Beni, Bolivia. ; 1] Instituto Boliviano de Investigacion Forestal, C.P. 6201, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. [2] Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. ; 1] Center for Tropical Conservation, Duke University, Box 90381, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. [2] The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496, USA. ; Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. ; Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana, Iquitos, Loreto, Peru. ; Instituto de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo Forestal (INDEFOR), Universidad de Los Andes, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales, Conjunto Forestal, C.P. 5101, Merida, Venezuela. ; Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development, 77 High Street Kingston, Georgetown, Guyana. ; Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Av. Magalhaes Barata, 376 - Sao Braz, CEP 66040-170, Belem PA, Brazil. ; UFRA, Av. Presidente Tancredo Neves 2501, CEP 66.077-901, Belem, Para, Brazil. ; Museu Universitario, Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco AC 69910-900, Brazil. ; European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 274, 21010 Ispra, Italy. ; 1] Naturalis Biodiversity Center, PO Box, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands. [2] Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Utrecht University, PO Box 80084, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands. ; Museo de Historia Natural Alcide D'Orbigny, Av. Potosi no 1458, Cochabamba, Bolivia. ; 1] School of Earth and Environmental Science, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland 4870, Australia. [2] Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science (TESS) and School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland 4878, Australia. ; 1] Northumbria University, School of Geography, Ellison Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 8ST, UK. [2] University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202, USA. [3] Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado Postal 0843-03092, Panama, Republic of Panama. ; Van der Hout Forestry Consulting, Jan Trooststraat 6, 3078 HP Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Universidade Estadual de Campinas, NEPAM, Rua dos Flamboyants, 155- Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, CEP 13083-867, Sao Paulo, Brazil. ; 1] Universidad Autonoma del Beni, Campus Universitario, Av. Ejercito Nacional, Riberalta, Beni, Bolivia. [2] Centro de Investigacion y Promocion del Campesinado, regional Norte Amazonico, C/ Nicanor Gonzalo Salvatierra N degrees 362, Casilla 16, Riberalta, Bolivia. ; Tropenbos International, PO Box 232, 6700 AE Wageningen, The Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25788097" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Atmosphere/chemistry ; Biomass ; Brazil ; Carbon/analysis/metabolism ; Carbon Dioxide/*analysis/metabolism ; *Carbon Sequestration ; Plant Stems/metabolism ; *Rainforest ; Trees/growth & development/metabolism ; Tropical Climate ; Wood/analysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted limit of an increase above pre-industrial temperatures of two degrees Celsius, may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets could be more powerful because such targets are more directly aligned with individual national interests. We illustrate this approach using regional changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation. These scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. This is particularly relevant for changes in regional extreme temperatures on land, which are much greater than changes in the associated global mean.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Seneviratne, Sonia I -- Donat, Markus G -- Pitman, Andy J -- Knutti, Reto -- Wilby, Robert L -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):477-83. doi: 10.1038/nature16542. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. ; ARC Centre of Excellence in Climate System Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. ; Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. ; Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789252" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...