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  • 1
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    Cambridge Univ. Press
    In:  Antarctic Science, 27 (4). pp. 388-402.
    Publication Date: 2015-07-21
    Description: The development of coastal polynyas, areas of enhanced heat flux and sea ice production strongly depend on atmospheric conditions. In Antarctica, measurements are scarce and models are essential for the investigation of polynyas. A robust quantification of polynya exchange processes in simulations relies on a realistic representation of atmospheric conditions in the forcing dataset. The sensitivity of simulated coastal polynyas in the south-western Weddell Sea to the atmospheric forcing is investigated with the Finite-Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) using daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (NCEP), 6 hourly Global Model Europe (GME) data and two different hourly datasets from the high-resolution Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling (COSMO) model. Results are compared for April to August in 2007–09. The two coarse-scale datasets often produce the extremes of the data range, while the finer-scale forcings yield results closer to the median. The GME experiment features the strongest winds and, therefore, the greatest polynya activity, especially over the eastern continental shelf. This results in higher volume and export of High Salinity Shelf Water than in the NCEP and COSMO runs. The largest discrepancies between simulations occur for 2008, probably due to differing representations of the ENSO pattern at high southern latitudes. The results suggest that the large-scale wind field is of primary importance for polynya development.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: The development of coastal polynyas, areas of enhanced heat flux and sea ice production, strongly depends on atmospheric conditions. In Antarctica, measurements are scarce and models are essential for the investigation of polynyas. A robust quantification of polynya exchange processes in simulations relies on a realistic representation of atmospheric conditions in the forcing dataset. The sensitivity of simulated coastal polynyas in the south-western Weddell Sea to the atmospheric forcing is investigated with the Finite-Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) using daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (NCEP), 6 hourly Global Model Europe (GME) data and two different hourly datasets from the high-resolution Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling (COSMO) model. Results are compared for April to August 2007–09. The two coarse-scale datasets often produce the extremes of the data range, while the finer-scale forcings yield results closer to the median. The GME experiment features the strongest winds and, therefore, the greatest polynya activity, especially over the eastern continental shelf. This results in higher volume and export of High Salinity Shelf Water than in the NCEP and COSMO runs. The largest discrepancies between simulations occur for 2008, probably due to differing representations of the ENSO pattern at high southern latitudes. The results suggest that the large-scale wind field is of primary importance for polynya development.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-11-04
    Description: Multimodel Arctic Ocean “climate response function” experiments are analyzed in order to explore the effects of anomalous wind forcing over the Greenland Sea (GS) on poleward ocean heat transport, Atlantic Water (AW) pathways, and the extent of Arctic sea ice. Particular emphasis is placed on the sensitivity of the AW circulation to anomalously strong or weak GS winds in relation to natural variability, the latter manifested as part of the North Atlantic Oscillation. We find that anomalously strong (weak) GS wind forcing, comparable in strength to a strong positive (negative) North Atlantic Oscillation index, results in an intensification (weakening) of the poleward AW flow, extending from south of the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre, through the Nordic Seas, and all the way into the Canadian Basin. Reconstructions made utilizing the calculated climate response functions explain ∼50% of the simulated AW flow variance; this is the proportion of variability that can be explained by GS wind forcing. In the Barents and Kara Seas, there is a clear relationship between the wind‐driven anomalous AW inflow and the sea ice extent. Most of the anomalous AW heat is lost to the atmosphere, and loss of sea ice in the Barents Sea results in even more heat loss to the atmosphere, and thus effective ocean cooling. Release of passive tracers in a subset of the suite of models reveals differences in circulation patterns and shows that the flow of AW in the Arctic Ocean is highly dependent on the wind stress in the Nordic Seas.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Leg dominance has been reported as one potential risk factor for lower-limb injuries in recreational downhill skiers. The current study proposed and tested two possible mechanisms for a leg dominance effect on skiing injuries—imbalance of the knee muscle strength and bilateral asymmetry in sensorimotor control. We hypothesized that the knee muscle strength (Hypothesis 1; H1) or postural control (Hypothesis 2; H2) would be affected by leg dominance. Fifteen well-experienced recreational downhill skiers (aged 24.3 ± 3.2 years) participated in this study. Isometric knee flexor/extensor muscle strength was tested using a dynamometer. Postural control was explored by using a kinematic principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the coordination structure and control of three-dimensional unipedal balancing movements while wearing ski equipment on firm and soft standing surfaces. Only H2 was supported when balancing on the firm surface, revealing that when shifting body weight over the nondominant leg, skiers significantly changed the coordination structure (p 〈 0.006) and the control (p 〈 0.004) of the lifted-leg movements. Based on the current findings, bilateral asymmetry in sensorimotor control rather than asymmetry in strength seems a more likely mechanism for the previously reported effect of leg dominance on lower-limb injury risk in recreational downhill skiers.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Abstract Multi‐model Arctic Ocean ``Climate Response Function” (CRF) experiments are analyzed in order to explore the effects of anomalous wind forcing over the Greenland Sea (GS) on poleward ocean heat transport, Atlantic Water (AW) pathways, and the extent of Arctic sea ice. Particular emphasis is placed on the sensitivity of the AW circulation to anomalously strong or weak GS winds in relation to natural variability, the latter manifested as part of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). We find that anomalously strong (weak) GS wind forcing, comparable in strength to a strong positive (negative) NAO index, results in an intensification (weakening) of the poleward AW flow, extending from south of the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre, through the Nordic Seas, and all the way into the Canadian Basin. Reconstructions made utilizing the calculated CRFs explain ~50 % of the simulated AW flow variance; this is the proportion of variability that can be explained by GS wind forcing. In the Barents and Kara Seas there is a clear relationship between the wind‐driven anomalous AW inflow and the sea ice extent. Most of the anomalous AW heat is lost to the atmosphere, and loss of sea ice in the Barents Sea results in even more heat loss to the atmosphere, and thus effective ocean cooling. Release of passive tracers in a subset of the suite of models reveals differences in circulation patterns and shows that the flow of AW in the Arctic Ocean is highly dependent on the wind stress in the Nordic Seas.
    Print ISSN: 2169-9275
    Electronic ISSN: 2169-9291
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-03-22
    Description: We use hydrodynamical simulations in a (256 pc) 3 periodic box to model the impact of supernova (SN) explosions on the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) for initial densities n  = 0.5–30 cm –3 and SN rates 1–720 Myr –1 . We include radiative cooling, diffuse heating, and the formation of molecular gas using a chemical network. The SNe explode either at random positions, at density peaks, or both. We further present a model combining thermal energy for resolved and momentum input for unresolved SNe. Random driving at high SN rates results in hot gas ( T   10 6  K) filling 〉90 per cent of the volume. This gas reaches high pressures (10 4  〈  P / k B  〈 10 7  K cm –3 ) due to the combination of SN explosions in the hot, low-density medium and confinement in the periodic box. These pressures move the gas from a two-phase equilibrium to the single-phase, cold branch of the cooling curve. The molecular hydrogen dominates the mass (〉50 per cent), residing in small, dense clumps. Such a model might resemble the dense ISM in high-redshift galaxies. Peak driving results in huge radiative losses, producing a filamentary ISM with virtually no hot gas, and a small molecular hydrogen mass fraction (〈〈1 per cent). Varying the ratio of peak to random SNe yields ISM properties in between the two extremes, with a sharp transition for equal contributions. The velocity dispersion in H i remains 10 km s –1 in all cases. For peak driving, the velocity dispersion in Hα can be as high as 70 km s –1 due to the contribution from young, embedded SN remnants.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Sample entropy (SaEn) applied on center-of-pressure (COP) data provides a measure for the regularity of human postural control. Two mechanisms could contribute to altered COP regularity: first, an altered temporal structure (temporal regularity) of postural movements (H1); or second, altered coordination between segment movements (coordinative complexity; H2). The current study used rapid, voluntary head-shaking to perturb the postural control system, thus producing changes in COP regularity, to then assess the two hypotheses. Sixteen healthy participants (age 26.5 ± 3.5; seven females), whose postural movements were tracked via 39 reflective markers, performed trials in which they first stood quietly on a force plate for 30 s, then shook their head for 10 s, finally stood quietly for another 90 s. A principal component analysis (PCA) performed on the kinematic data extracted the main postural movement components. Temporal regularity was determined by calculating SaEn on the time series of these movement components. Coordinative complexity was determined by assessing the relative explained variance of the first five components. H1 was supported, but H2 was not. These results suggest that moderate perturbations of the postural control system produce altered temporal structures of the main postural movement components, but do not necessarily change the coordinative structure of intersegment movements.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: The effect of salinity and water stresses on the essential oil components of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil was investigated. Rosemary plants were submitted to different water treatments: tap water (TW), salt water (SW) and without irrigation (NIR). GC/MS analysis showed that ten and eleven volatile compounds were identified in essential oil of rosemary plants irrigated with tap water (TW) and salt water (SW), respectively. However, thirteen volatile compounds were identified in essential oil of non-irrigated plants (NIR). Moreover, among these compounds, α-Pinene, Eucalyptol (1,8 Cineol), Camphene, Borneol, D-verbenone, Bornyl acetate were the major components of oil. Also, GC/MS results highlighted that non-irrigated rosemary plants showed the highest essential oil yield (Y). Obtained oil yields followed the order YNIR 〉 YTW 〉 YSW. In conclusion, qualitative and quantitative differences in rosemary essential oil components were highlighted in relation to water stress.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
    Published by MDPI
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-07-12
    Description: Author(s): L. A. Pickworth, B. A. Hammel, V. A. Smalyuk, A. G. MacPhee, H. A. Scott, H. F. Robey, O. L. Landen, M. A. Barrios, S. P. Regan, M. B. Schneider, M. Hoppe, Jr., T. Kohut, D. Holunga, C. Walters, B. Haid, and M. Dayton First measurements of hydrodynamic growth near peak implosion velocity in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion at the National Ignition Facility were obtained using a self-radiographing technique and a preimposed Legendre mode 40, λ = 140     μ m , sinusoidal perturbation. These are the first mea… [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 035001] Published Mon Jul 11, 2016
    Keywords: Plasma and Beam Physics
    Print ISSN: 0031-9007
    Electronic ISSN: 1079-7114
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-17
    Description: Supernova (SN) blast waves inject energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM), control its turbulent multiphase structure and the launching of galactic outflows. Accurate modelling of the blast wave evolution is therefore essential for ISM and galaxy formation simulations. We present an efficient method to compute the input of momentum, thermal energy, and the velocity distribution of the shock-accelerated gas for ambient media (densities of 0.1 ≥ n 0 [cm – 3 ] ≥ 100) with uniform (and with stellar wind blown bubbles), power-law, and turbulent (Mach numbers $\mathcal {M}$ from 1to100) density distributions. Assuming solar metallicity cooling, the blast wave evolution is followed to the beginning of the momentum conserving snowplough phase. The model recovers previous results for uniform ambient media. The momentum injection in wind-blown bubbles depend on the swept-up mass and the efficiency of cooling, when the blast wave hits the wind shell. For power-law density distributions with n ( r ) ~  r –2 (for n ( r ) 〉  n floor ) the amount of momentum injection is solely regulated by the background density n floor and compares to n uni = n floor . However, in turbulent ambient media with lognormal density distributions the momentum input can increase by a factor of 2 (compared to the homogeneous case) for high Mach numbers. The average momentum boost can be approximated as $p_{{\rm turb}}/{p_{{0}}}\ =23.07\, \left(\frac{n_{{0,\rm turb}}}{1\,{\rm cm}^{-3}}\right)^{-0.12} + 0.82 (\ln (1+b^{2}\mathcal {M}^{2}))^{1.49}\left(\frac{n_{{0,\rm turb}}}{1\,{\rm cm}^{-3}}\right)^{-1.6}$ . The velocity distributions are broad as gas can be accelerated to high velocities in low-density channels. The model values agree with results from recent, computationally expensive, three-dimensional simulations of SN explosions in turbulent media.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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