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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-11-09
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-11-15
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The SWATH-D experiment is dense deployment of 154 seismic stations in the Central and Eastern Alps between Italy and Austria, complementing the larger-scale sparser AlpArray Seismic Network (AASN). SWATH-D will provide high resolution images from the surface into the upper mantle, and allow observations of local seismicity. SWATH-D focuses on a key area of the Alps where the hypothesized flip in subduction polarity has been suggested, and where an earlier seismic profile (TRANSALP) has imaged a jump in the Moho. Where mains power is available (at ca. 80 sites) stations are providing realtime data via the cellphone network and are equipped with Güralp CMG-3EPSC (60s) seismometers and Earth Data Recorders EDR-210. The rest of the stations are offline and consist mainly of Nanometrics Trillium Compact (120s) and Güralp CMG-3EPSC (60s) seismometers equipped with either Omnirecs CUBE3 or PR6-24 Earth Data Loggers. All stations are equipped with external GPS antennas and the sampling rate is 100 Hz (Heit, et al., 2018). The network will operate for 2 years starting in July 2017. The Swath-D data will be used directly by 20 individual proposals of the MB-4D Priority Program (Mountain Building Processes in Four Dimensions, 2017) of the German Research Foundation (DFG) and data products derived from it will contribute to additional 13 proposals. SWATH-D is thus an important link between the MB-4D Priority Program and the international AlpArray communities and a scientific service to many of the proposals within the DFG Priority Program. Waveform data are available from the GEOFON data centre, under network code ZS, and are embargoed until August 2023. After the end of embargo, data will be openly available under CC-BY 4.0 license according to GIPP-rules.
    Keywords: Broadband seismic waveforms ; Seismic monitoring ; temporary local seismic network ; Seismological stations ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA MANAGEMENT/DATA HANDLING 〉 DATA SEARCH AND RETRIEVAL ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA MANAGEMENT/DATA HANDLING 〉 ARCHIVING ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 EARTHQUAKES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS ; seismology
    Type: Other , Seismic Network
    Format: ~1T
    Format: SEED data
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Highlights • Crustal structure of Walvis Ridge reveals high seismic velocities in the lower crust intruding the African continent. • This modified crust is localized to approx. 100 × 100 km within the continent. • No indication for a large plume head observed The opening of the South Atlantic is a classical example for a plume related continental breakup. Flood basalts are present on both conjugate margins as well as aseismic ridges connecting them with the current plume location at Tristan da Cunha. To determine the effect of the proposed plume head on the continental crust, we acquired wide-angle seismic data at the junction of the Walvis Ridge with the African continent and modelled the P-wave velocity structure in a forward approach. The profile extends 430. km along the ridge and continues onshore to a length of 720. km. Crustal velocities beneath the Walvis Ridge vary between 5.5. km/s and 7.0. km/s, a typical range for oceanic crust. The crustal thickness of 22. km, however, is approximately three times larger than of normal oceanic crust. The continent-ocean transition is characterized by 30. km thick crust with strong lateral velocity variations in the upper crust and a high-velocity lower crust (HVLC), where velocities reach up to 7.5. km/s. The HVLC is 100 to 130. km wider at the Walvis Ridge than it is farther south, and impinges onto the continental crust of the Kaoko fold belt. Such high seismic velocities indicate Mg-rich igneous material intruded into the continental crust during the initial rifting stage. However, the remaining continental crust seems unaffected by intrusions and the root of the 40. km-thick crust of the Kaoko belt is not thermally abraded. We conclude that the plume head did not modify the continental crust on a large scale, but caused rather local effects. Thus, it seems unlikely that a plume drove or initiated the breakup process. We further propose that the plume already existed underneath the continent prior to the breakup, and ponded melt erupted at emerging rift structures providing the magma for continental flood basalts.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉We present a Bayesian approach to solve the problem of simultaneous inversion for optimal hypocentre parameters and 1-D velocity models as well as station corrections for a given set of local earthquakes utilizing a hierarchical, transdimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) algorithm. The simultaneous inversion is necessary because of the velocity–hypocentre coupling inherent to the problem.Tests with synthetic arrival time data indicate an excellent performance of the approach, at the same time benefiting from all the advantages related to the McMC algorithm. These advantages are that only minimum prior knowledge is used (i.e. regarding starting focal coordinates, initial velocity model, which are set to random initial values), no regularization parameters (e.g. damping) have to be selected, and the parametrization of the velocity model (i.e. model nodes/layers) is automatically set and adjusted according to the quality of the data, that is noise level. By minimizing the amount of pre-inversion assumptions, which are regularly not available at the required precision or often only available after very careful and time-consuming assessment, the inversion results are therefore almost exclusively data-driven. On output, we obtain a suite of well fitting models which can statistically be analysed and provide direct estimates of the posterior uncertainties of the models.Tests with real arrival time data from a temporary local network deployed in South-Central Chile in 2004 and 2005 show a very good agreement with the results obtained with a conventional inversion method.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Summary〈/div〉We present a Bayesian approach to solve the problem of simultaneous inversion for optimal hypocenter parameters and 1-D velocity models as well as station corrections for a given set of local earthquakes utilizing a hierarchical, transdimensional McMC algorithm. The simultaneous inversion is necessary because of the velocity-hypocenter coupling inherent to the problem.Tests with synthetic arrival time data indicate an excellent performance of the approach, at the same time benefiting from all the advantages related to the McMC algorithm. These advantages are that only minimum prior knowledge is used (i.e. regarding starting focal coordinates, initial velocity model, which are set to random initial values), no regularization parameters (e.g. damping) have to be selected, and the parameterization of the velocity model (i.e. model nodes/layers) is automatically set and adjusted according to the quality of the data, i.e. noise level. By minimizing the amount of pre-inversion assumptions, which are regularly not available at the required precision or often only available after very careful and time-consuming assessment, the inversion results are therefore almost exclusively data-driven. On output, we obtain a suite of well fitting models which can statistically be analyzed and provide direct estimates of the posterior uncertainties of the models.Tests with real arrival time data from a temporary local network deployed in South-Central Chile in 2004 and 2005 show a very good agreement with the results obtained with a conventional inversion method.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-07-30
    Description: The causes for the formation of large igneous provinces and hotspot trails are still a matter of considerable dispute. Seismic tomography and other studies suggest that hot mantle material rising from the core-mantle boundary (CMB) might play a significant role in the formation of such hotspot trails. An important area to verify this concept is the South Atlantic region, with hotspot trails that spatially coincide with one of the largest low-velocity regions at the CMB, the African large low shear-wave velocity province. The Walvis Ridge started to form during the separation of the South American and African continents at ca. 130 Ma as a consequence of Gondwana breakup. Here, we present the first deep-seismic sounding images of the crustal structure from the landfall area of the Walvis Ridge at the Namibian coast to constrain processes of plume-lithosphere interaction and the formation of continental flood basalts (Paraná and Etendeka continental flood basalts) and associated intrusive rocks. Our study identified a narrow region (〈100 km) of high-seismic-velocity anomalies in the middle and lower crust, which we interpret as a massive mafic intrusion into the northern Namibian continental crust. Seismic crustal reflection imaging shows a flat Moho as well as reflectors connecting the high-velocity body with shallow crustal structures that we speculate to mark potential feeder channels of the Etendeka continental flood basalt. We suggest that the observed massive but localized mafic intrusion into the lower crust results from similar-sized variations in the lithosphere (i.e., lithosphere thickness or preexisting structures).
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-15
    Description: Upwelling hot mantle plumes are thought to disintegrate continental lithosphere and are considered to be drivers of active continental breakup. The formation of the Walvis Ridge during the opening of the South Atlantic is related to a putative plume-induced breakup. We investigated the crustal structure of the Walvis Ridge (southeast Atlantic Ocean) at its intersection with the continental margin and searched for anomalies related to the possible plume head. The overall structure we identify suggests that no broad plume head existed during opening of the South Atlantic and anomalous mantle melting occurred only locally. We therefore question the importance of a plume head as a driver of continental breakup and further speculate that the hotspot was present before the rifting, leaving a track of kimberlites in the African craton.
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-02-12
    Description: We present new seismicity and focal-mechanism data for the Fergana basin and surrounding mountain belts in western Kyrgyzstan from a temporary local seismic network. A total of 210 crustal earthquakes with hypocentral depths shallower than 25 km were observed during a 12-month period in 2009/2010. The hypocenter distribution indicates a complex net of seismically active structures. The seismicity derived in this study is mainly concentrated at the edges of the Fergana basin, whereas the observed rate of seismicity within the basin is low. The seismicity at the dominant tectonic feature of the region, the Talas-Fergana fault, is likewise low, so the fault seems to be inactive or locked. To estimate the uncertainties of earthquake locations derived in this study, a strong explosion with known origin time and location is used as a ground truth calibration event which suggests a horizontal and vertical accuracy of about 1 km for our relocations. We derived 35 focal mechanisms using first motion polarities and retrieved a set of nine moment tensor solutions for earthquakes with moment magnitude (Mw) ranging from 3.3 to 4.9 by waveform inversion. The solutions reveal both thrust and strike-slip mechanisms compatible with a NW-SE direction of compression for the Fergana region. Two previously unknown tectonic structures in the Fergana region could be identified, both featuring strike-slip kinematics. The combined analysis of the results derived in this study allowed a detailed insight into the currently active tectonic structures and their kinematics where little information had previously been available.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-02-12
    Description: The causes for the formation of large igneous provinces and hotspot trails are still a matter of considerable dispute. Seismic tomography and other studies suggest that hot mantle material rising from the core-mantle boundary (CMB) might play a significant role in the formation of such hotspot trails. An important area to verify this concept is the South Atlantic region, with hotspot trails that spatially coincide with one of the largest low-velocity regions at the CMB, the African large low shear-wave velocity province. The Walvis Ridge started to form during the separation of the South American and African continents at ca. 130 Ma as a consequence of Gondwana breakup. Here, we present the first deep-seismic sounding images of the crustal structure from the landfall area of the Walvis Ridge at the Namibian coast to constrain processes of plume-lithosphere interaction and the formation of continental flood basalts (Paraná and Etendeka continental flood basalts) and associated intrusive rocks. Our study identified a narrow region (〈100 km) of high-seismic-velocity anomalies in the middle and lower crust, which we interpret as a massive mafic intrusion into the northern Namibian continental crust. Seismic crustal reflection imaging shows a flat Moho as well as reflectors connecting the high-velocity body with shallow crustal structures that we speculate to mark potential feeder channels of the Etendeka continental flood basalt. We suggest that the observed massive but localized mafic intrusion into the lower crust results from similar-sized variations in the lithosphere (i.e., lithosphere thickness or preexisting structures).
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-02-12
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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