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  • 2015-2019  (215)
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  • 1
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: We present quasi-experimental evidence on the employment effects of an unprecedented large increase in the early retirement age (ERA). Raising the ERA has the potential to extend contribution periods and to reduce the number of pension beneficiaries at the same time, if employment exits are successfully delayed. However, workers may not be able to work longer or may choose other social support programs as exit routes from employment. We study the effects of the ERA increase on employment and potential program substitution in a regression-discontinuity framework. Germany abolished an important early retirement program for women born after 1951, effectively raising the ERA for women by three years. We analyze the effects of this huge increase on employment, unemployment, disability pensions, and inactivity rates. Our results suggest that the reform increased both employment and unemployment rates of women age 60 and over. However, we do not find evidence for active program substitution from employment into alternative social support programs. Instead employed women remained employed and unemployed women remained unemployed. The results suggest an increase in inequality within the affected cohorts.
    Keywords: J14 ; J18 ; J22 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; early retirement ; regression discontinuity ; pension reform ; unemployment ; labor supply ; disability pension
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: We evaluate the labor market and distributional effects of an increase in the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 63 for women. We use a regression discontinuity design which exploits the immediate increase in the ERA between women born in 1951 and 1952. The analysis is based on the German micro census which includes about 370,000 households per year. We focus on heterogeneous labor market effects on the individual and on the household level and we study the distributional implications using net household income. In this respect we extend the previous literature which mainly studied employment effects on the individual level. Our results show sizable labor market effects which strongly differ by subgroups. We document larger employment effects for women who cannot rely on other income on the household level, e.g. women with a low income partner. The distributional analysis shows on average no significant effects on female or household income. This result holds as well for heterogeneous groups: Even for the most vulnerable groups, such as single women, women without higher education, or low partner income, we do not find significant reductions in income. One reason for this result is program substitution.
    Keywords: J14 ; J18 ; J22 ; J26 ; H31 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; pension reform ; labor supply ; early retirement ; distributional effects ; spillover effects ; household
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: We evaluate the labor market and distributional effects of an increase in the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 63 for women. We use a regression discontinuity design which exploits the immediate increase in the ERA between women born in 1951 and 1952. The analysis is based on the German micro census which includes about 370,000 households per year. We focus on heterogeneous labor market effects on the individual and on the household level and we study the distributional implications using net household income. In this respect we extend the previous literature which mainly studied employment effects on the individual level. Our results show sizable labor market effects which strongly differ by subgroups. We document larger employment effects for women who cannot rely on other income on the household level, e.g. women with a low income partner. The distributional analysis shows on average no significant effects on female or household income. This result holds as well for heterogeneous groups: Even for the most vulnerable groups, such as single women, women without higher education, or low partner income, we do not find significant reductions in income. One reason for this result is program substitution.
    Keywords: J14 ; J18 ; J22 ; J26 ; H31 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; pension reform ; labor supply ; early retirement ; distributional effects ; spillover effects ; household
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-11-16
    Description: In this paper we exploit a cohort-specific pension reform to estimate the causal labour market effects of changes in the financial incentives to retire. In particular, we analyze the effects of the introduction of cohort-specific deductions for early retirement on female retirement, employment and unemployment. For the empirical analysis we use high-quality administrative data from the German pension insurance. We present evidence for sizable labour market effects. In addition to direct effects on women older than 60 we find important anticipation effects before reaching the pension eligibility age. Overall we document that the pension reform leads to a postponement of retirement, an increase in employment and a shifting in unemployment over age rather than a substitution into unemployment.
    Keywords: J14 ; J18 ; J22 ; J26 ; H21 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; pension reform ; labour supply ; actuarial deductions ; cohort-specific pension reform ; labour market effects
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-12-30
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 6
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: In this paper we exploit a cohort specific pension reform to estimate the causal employment effect of changes in the financial incentives to retire. In particular we analyze the effect of the introduction of pension deductions for early retirement on female employment. For the empirical analysis we use high-quality administrative data from the German Federal Pension Insurance (VSKT) and find positive and significant effects of the reform on employment.
    Keywords: J18 ; J26 ; J14 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-08-04
    Description: Ein häufig genannter Vorschlag zur Reform der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung (GRV) ist die Ausweitung des Versichertenkreises. Dabei geht es zum einen um die bessere Alterssicherung von bislang nicht Versicherten und zum zweiten um die Stabilisierung der finanziellen Grundlagen der GRV. Dieser Bericht untersucht die finanziellen Auswirkungen einer Versicherungspflicht für Mini- und Midi-Jobs und für Selbständige. Es wird gezeigt, dass der Einbezug von Mini- und Midi-Jobbern kaum eine Auswirkung auf die Finanzlage der GRV hat, aber die Einbeziehung von nicht obligatorisch abgesicherten Selbständigen in die Versicherungspflicht die Finanzen der GRV auf mittlere Sicht merklich entlasten könnte. Eine besondere Bedeutung kommt der zeitlichen Umsetzung der Reform zu. Die entlastenden Effekte bei einer Einbeziehung der Selbständigen ergeben sich dadurch, dass zunächst mehr Beiträge ins System fließen, aber noch keine Renten ausgezahlt werden müssen. Wenn man sofort alle Selbständigen in die GRV übernehmen würde, wäre die maximale Entlastung beim Beitragssatz bereits nach wenigen Jahren erreicht. Würde man die Versicherungspflicht nur auf neue Selbständige ausdehnen, wäre der maximale Effekt erst nach dem Jahr 2040 erreicht.
    Description: A frequently mentioned proposal for reforming the statutory pension insurance system (GRV) involves expanding the group of insured economically active persons. Such a reform aims at two primary benefits: offering pensions to those who are currently uninsured and stabilizing the GRV's financial foundations. This report examines the financial impact of a compulsory insurance for mini- and midi-jobbers as well as the self-employed. It is shown that the inclusion of mini- and midi-jobbers would have little impact on the GRV's financial position, but that the inclusion of self-employed workers could markedly improve it in the medium term. Behavioral adaptations are not taken into account. The chronology of the reform's implementation is of particular importance: the favorable effects of including self-employed individuals arise from the fact that initially, more contributions will be flowing into the system, but no pensions will have been paid out yet. If all existing self-employed individuals were to be included into the GRV at this very moment, the maximum positive effects would be achieved in just a few years; if only newly self-employed individuals were to be included, the maximum effect would not materialize until after 2040.
    Keywords: H24 ; H26 ; D31 ; ddc:330 ; pension system ; self-employed ; demographic change
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 8
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Im Jahr 2013 bezogen rund 2,6 Millionen Menschen Leistungen der Pflegeversicherung. Die Zahl der Leistungsempfänger ist seit 1998 um 45 Prozent gestiegen. Gut 70 Prozent der Leistungsbeziehenden, etwa 1,7 Millionen Personen, wurden zu Hause und knapp 30 Prozent stationär gepflegt. Daneben gibt es eine nicht unerhebliche Zahl von Personen, die auf Pflege angewiesen sind, aber noch nicht in einem Maß, das zu Leistungen aus der Pflegeversicherung berechtigt, diese werden zu fast 100 Prozent zu Hause gepflegt. Ein Pflegefall stellt für die betroffenen Personen und Haushalte in der Regel eine große Belastung dar. Neben den gesundheitlichen Einschränkungen entstehen zusätzliche Kosten durch Ausgaben für Medizin und Pflege. Zugleich sinkt häufig das Einkommen der pflegenden Angehörigen durch Reduktion der Erwerbstätigkeit. Die vorliegende Studie zeigt, dass Pflegehaushalte über ein ähnlich hohes Haushaltseinkommen verfügen wie Haushalte, in denen keine pflegebedürftige Person lebt. Allerdings machen Transferleistungen bei Pflegebedürftigen einen relativ hohen Anteil am Gesamteinkommen aus. Darüber hinaus ist ihr Vermögen erheblich geringer als das von Personen ohne Pflegebedarf. Insbesondere alleinlebende Pflegebedürftige verfügen über geringe finanzielle Ressourcen, stellen zugleich aber über 40 Prozent aller Pflegehaushalte dar.
    Description: In 2013, some 2.6 million people received longterm care benefits. The number of benefit recipients has risen by 45 percent since 1998. A good 70 percent of benefit recipients, roughly 1.7 million people, are cared for at home and nearly 30 percent in a nursing facility. There are also a significant number of individuals who are dependent on care but not to such an extent that they are entitled to benefits from their care insurance. Instead, they are almost all cared for at home. Long-term care is usually a major burden on the individuals and households concerned. Alongside health-related restrictions, there are also additional costs due to medical expenses and care. At the same time, related caregivers often earn less, since they are forced to reduce working hours to take on care commitments. The present study shows thatcare households have similar incomes to households without care recipients. However, transfer payments for care recipients make up a relatively high share of total income. Moreover, care recipients' assets are far lower than those of individuals without care needs. Care recipients living alone have particularly limited financial resources, and they represent more than 40 percent of all care households.
    Keywords: I14 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; long-term care ; wealth ; income distribution
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 10
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Das Thema Altersarmut wird in Deutschland kontrovers diskutiert. Altersarmut gilt für viele als ein wichtiges sozialpolitisches Problem, da ältere Menschen nur wenige Möglichkeiten haben, etwas an ihrer Einkommensposition zu ändern. Arme Ältere sind deswegen einem hohen Risiko ausgesetzt, dauerhaft arm zu bleiben. Armut am Ende eines langen Erwerbslebens stellt für viele die Legitimität des vorhandenen Systems der Alterssicherung in Frage. Die aktuelle Kontroverse dreht sich insbesondere um das Risiko zunehmender Altersarmut in den kommenden Jahren und die politischen Handlungsempfehlungen, die daraus abzuleiten sind. Bemerkenswert ist allerdings, dass bereits das Ausmaß heutiger Altersarmut unterschiedlich gemessen und bewertet wird. Viele Autoren/innen betonen, dass die Debatte um Altersarmut „emotional“ geführt wird und eine Versachlichung angebracht erscheine. Zum besseren Verständnis der Debatte soll hier differenziert werden zwischen den unterschiedlichen Messkonzepten und Definitionen, die in der Debatte um Altersarmut verwendet werden. Dabei beschränkt sich die Darstellung auf die zwei gängigsten monetären Armutsindikatoren und geht nicht auf weiter gefasste Konzepte zur Messung materieller Deprivation ein. Einerseits wird Altersarmut anhand der Inanspruchnahme bedürftigkeitsgeprüfter Transfers wie der Grundsicherung, die das sozio-kulturelle Existenzminimum sicherstellen sollen, gemessen. Andererseits wird das Armutsrisiko auch mit Maßzahlen, die auf die relative Einkommensposition der Bevölkerung Bezug nehmen, bestimmt. Insbesondere bei den Älteren gelangt man für die verschiedenen Messgrößen zu sehr unterschiedlichen Ergebnissen über das Ausmaß der Altersarmut.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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