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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Fluorescent-amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) fingerprinting assay was used to compare the genetic diversity within and between tadpole shrimps (Notostraca) populations of Lepidurus apus (n=7) and Triops cancriformis (n=2) from rain pools in Israel. Each ephemeral water body has revealed a unique fingerprint pattern with an entailed genetic drift between nearby ponds. High similarity of genotypic diversity within each geographic area led to three clusters of water bodies, north, south and center of Israel. FAFLP assays on several newly hatched individuals of T. cancriformis revealed high identity amongst kin, as compared to L. apus where newly hatched from the same maternal source showed high diversity. Results indicate that T. cancriformis populations from Israel are probably parthenogenetic as indicated by clonal structures. The higher genetic variability in the L. apus populations and in laboratory-hatched specimens indicates the existence of sexual reproduction.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-02-05
    Description: Barnacles of the genus Galkinius occupy a large spectrum of host corals, making it one of the least host-specific genera within the Pyrgomatidae. Molecular analyses show that within the genus Galkinius there are highly supported clades, suggesting that the genus Galkinius is a complex of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). The morphology of the opercular valves has been used as the basis for the separation of species of Galkinius. In this study, morphological variability was found both between specimens within ESUs extracted from different host species and between specimens extracted from the same colony. Identifications based on the opercular valves cannot therefore be assigned to different species despite being genetically distinguishable. It is proposed that in many cases the differences between valve morphology of different species of Galkinius are the outcome of ontogeny. Allometric growth of the valves has resulted in differences in the proportions of the parts of the valve.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Scientific Reports 5 (2015): 11418, doi:10.1038/srep11418.
    Description: Endogenous circadian clocks are poorly understood within early-diverging animal lineages. We have characterized circadian behavioral patterns and identified potential components of the circadian clock in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis: a model cnidarian which lacks algal symbionts. Using automatic video tracking we showed that Nematostella exhibits rhythmic circadian locomotor activity, which is persistent in constant dark, shifted or disrupted by external dark/light cues and maintained the same rate at two different temperatures. This activity was inhibited by a casein kinase 1δ/ε inhibitor, suggesting a role for CK1 homologue(s) in Nematostella clock. Using high-throughput sequencing we profiled Nematostella transcriptomes over 48 hours under a light-dark cycle. We identified 180 Nematostella diurnally-oscillated transcripts and compared them with previously established databases of adult and larvae of the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora, revealing both shared homologues and unique rhythmic genes. Taken together, this study further establishes Nematostella as a non-symbiotic model organism to study circadian rhythms and increases our understanding about the fundamental elements of circadian regulation and their evolution within the Metazoa.
    Description: This work was supported by the Israel-US Binational Science Foundation to OL and AMT (Award 2011187). Additional support was provided by the WHOI Early Career Scientist Award to AMT.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/vnd.ms-excel
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Scientific Reports 8 (2018): 4917, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-23167-y.
    Description: Intertidal inhabitants are exposed to the 24-hour solar day, and the 12.4 hour rising and falling of the tides. One or both of these cycles govern intertidal organisms’ behaviour and physiology, yet little is known about the molecular clockworks of tidal rhythmicity. Here, we show that the limpet Cellana rota exhibits robust tidally rhythmic behaviour and gene expression. We assembled a de-novo transcriptome, identifying novel tidal, along with known circadian clock genes. Surprisingly, most of the putative circadian clock genes, lack a typical rhythmicity. We identified numerous tidally rhythmic genes and pathways commonly associated with the circadian clock. We show that not only is the behaviour of an intertidal organism in tune with the tides, but so too are many of its genes and pathways. These findings highlight the plasticity of biological timekeeping in nature, strengthening the growing notion that the role of ‘canonical’ circadian clock genes may be more fluid than previously thought, as exhibited in an organism which has evolved in an environment where tidal oscillations are the dominant driving force.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-06-06
    Description: Background: Aquatic subterranean species often exhibit disjunct distributions, with high level of endemism and small range, shaped by vicariance, limited dispersal, and evolutionary rates. We studied the disjunct biogeographic patterns of an endangered blind cave shrimp, Typhlocaris, and identified the geological and evolutionary processes that have shaped its divergence pattern. Methods: We collected Typlocaris specimens of three species ( T. galilea, T. ayyaloni, and T. salentina), originating from subterranean groundwater caves by the Mediterranean Sea, and used three mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, cytochrome oxygnese subunit 1 (COI)) and four nuclear genes (18S, 28S, internal transcribed spacer, Histon 3) to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Using the radiometric dating of a geological formation (Bira) as a calibration node, we estimated the divergence times of the Typhlocaris species and the molecular evolution rates. Results: The multi-locus ML/Bayesian trees of the concatenated seven gene sequences showed that T. salentina (Italy) and T. ayyaloni (Israel) are sister species, both sister to T. galilea (Israel). The divergence time of T. ayyaloni and T. salentina from T. galilea was 7.0 Ma based on Bira calibration. The divergence time of T. ayyaloni from T. salentina was 5.7 (4.4-6.9) Ma according to COI, and 5.8 (3.5-7.2) Ma according to 16S. The computed interspecific evolutionary rates were 0.0077 substitutions/Myr for COI, and 0.0046 substitutions/Myr for 16S. Discussion: Two consecutive vicariant events have shaped the phylogeographic patterns of Typhlocaris species. First, T. galilea was tectonically isolated from its siblings in the Mediterranean Sea by the arching uplift of the central mountain range of Israel ca. seven Ma. Secondly, T. ayyaloni and T. salentina were stranded and separated by a marine transgression ca. six Ma, occurring just before the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Our estimated molecular evolution rates were in one order of magnitude lower than the rates of closely related crustaceans, as well as of other stygobiont species. We suggest that this slow evolution reflects the ecological conditions prevailing in the highly isolated subterranean water bodies inhabited by Typhlocaris.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-18
    Description: CD74 is a cell-surface receptor for the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor binding to CD74 induces its intramembrane cleavage and the release of its cytosolic intracellular domain (CD74–ICD), which regulates cell survival. In the present study, we characterized the transcriptional activity of CD74–ICD in chronic lymphocytic...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-10-17
    Description: The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) aims to spatially resolve the silhouette (or shadow) of the supermassive black holes in the Galactic Centre (Sgr A * ) and M87. The primary scientific objectives are to test general relativity in the strong-field regime and to probe accretion and jet-launch physics at event-horizon scales. This is made possible by the technique of very long baseline interferometry at (sub)millimetre wavelengths, which can achieve angular resolutions of order ~ 10 μ-arcsec. However, this approach suffers from unique observational challenges, including scattering in the troposphere and interstellar medium; rapidly time-variable source structure in both polarized and total intensity; as well as non-negligible antenna pointing errors. In this, the first paper in a series, we present the meqsilhouette software package which is specifically designed to accurately simulate EHT observations. It includes realistic descriptions of a number of signal corruptions that can limit the ability to measure the key science parameters. This can be used to quantify calibration requirements, test parameter estimation and imaging strategies, and investigate systematic uncertainties that may be present. In doing so, a stronger link can be made between observational capabilities and theoretical predictions, with the goal of maximizing scientific output from the upcoming order of magnitude increase in EHT sensitivity.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-12-23
    Description: Author(s): D. P. Higginson, B. Khiar, G. Revet, J. Béard, M. Blecher, M. Borghesi, K. Burdonov, S. N. Chen, E. Filippov, D. Khaghani, K. Naughton, H. Pépin, S. Pikuz, O. Portugall, C. Riconda, R. Riquier, R. Rodriguez, S. N. Ryazantsev, I. Yu. Skobelev, A. Soloviev, M. Starodubtsev, T. Vinci, O. Willi, A. Ciardi, and J. Fuchs We investigate the formation of a laser-produced magnetized jet under conditions of a varying mass ejection rate and a varying divergence of the ejected plasma flow. This is done by irradiating a solid target placed in a 20 T magnetic field with, first, a collinear precursor laser pulse ( 1 0 12     W / cm 2 ... [Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 255002] Published Fri Dec 22, 2017
    Keywords: Plasma and Beam Physics
    Print ISSN: 0031-9007
    Electronic ISSN: 1079-7114
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-11-02
    Description: Accretion dynamics in the formation of young stars is still a matter of debate because of limitations in observations and modeling. Through scaled laboratory experiments of collimated plasma accretion onto a solid in the presence of a magnetic field, we open a first window on this phenomenon by tracking, with spatial and temporal resolution, the dynamics of the system and simultaneously measuring multiband emissions. We observe in these experiments that matter, upon impact, is ejected laterally from the solid surface and then refocused by the magnetic field toward the incoming stream. This ejected matter forms a plasma shell that envelops the shocked core, reducing escaped x-ray emission. This finding demonstrates one possible structure reconciling current discrepancies between mass accretion rates derived from x-ray and optical observations, respectively.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-06-18
    Description: Endogenous circadian clocks are poorly understood within early-diverging animal lineages. We have characterized circadian behavioral patterns and identified potential components of the circadian clock in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis: a model cnidarian which lacks algal symbionts. Using automatic video tracking we showed that Nematostella exhibits rhythmic circadian locomotor activity, which is persistent in constant dark, shifted or disrupted by external dark/light cues and maintained the same rate at two different temperatures. This activity was inhibited by a casein kinase 1δ/ε inhibitor, suggesting a role for CK1 homologue(s) in Nematostella clock. Using high-throughput sequencing we profiled Nematostella transcriptomes over 48 hours under a light-dark cycle. We identified 180 Nematostella diurnally-oscillated transcripts and compared them with previously established databases of adult and larvae of the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora, revealing both shared homologues and unique rhythmic genes. Taken together, this study further establishes Nematostella as a non-symbiotic model organism to study circadian rhythms and increases our understanding about the fundamental elements of circadian regulation and their evolution within the Metazoa Scientific Reports 5 doi: 10.1038/srep11418
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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