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  • Articles  (32)
  • 2015-2019  (32)
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  • 1
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-08-16
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 32 (2017): 146–160, doi:10.1002/2016PA002976.
    Description: Coral skeletons are valuable archives of past ocean conditions. However, interpretation of coral paleotemperature records is confounded by uncertainties associated with single-element ratio thermometers, including Sr/Ca. A new approach, Sr-U, uses U/Ca to constrain the influence of Rayleigh fractionation on Sr/Ca. Here we build on the initial Pacific Porites Sr-U calibration to include multiple Atlantic and Pacific coral genera from multiple coral reef locations spanning a temperature range of 23.15–30.12°C. Accounting for the wintertime growth cessation of one Bermuda coral, we show that Sr-U is strongly correlated with the average water temperature at each location (r2 = 0.91, P 〈 0.001, n = 19). We applied the multispecies spatial calibration between Sr-U and temperature to reconstruct a 96 year long temperature record at Mona Island, Puerto Rico, using a coral not included in the calibration. Average Sr-U derived temperature for the period 1900–1996 is within 0.12°C of the average instrumental temperature at this site and captures the twentieth century warming trend of 0.06°C per decade. Sr-U also captures the timing of multiyear variability but with higher amplitude than implied by the instrumental data. Mean Sr-U temperatures and patterns of multiyear variability were replicated in a second coral in the same grid box. Conversely, Sr/Ca records from the same two corals were inconsistent with each other and failed to capture absolute sea temperatures, timing of multiyear variability, or the twentieth century warming trend. Our results suggest that coral Sr-U paleothermometry is a promising new tool for reconstruction of past ocean temperatures.
    Description: NSF Graduate Research Fellowships Grant Numbers: NSF-OCE-1338320, NSF-OCE-1031971, NSF-OCE-0926986; WHOI Access to the Sea Grant Numbers: 27500056, 0734826; NSF HRD; UPR Central Administration to EAHD through the Center for Applied Tropical Ecology and Conservation of UPR
    Description: 2017-08-16
    Keywords: Coral ; Temperature ; Paleoceangraphy ; Paleothermometry ; Global warming ; Biomineralization
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-12-03
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 32 (2017): 512–530, doi:10.1002/2016PA003072.
    Description: The carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of seawater provides valuable insight on ocean circulation, air-sea exchange, the biological pump, and the global carbon cycle and is reflected by the δ13C of foraminifera tests. Here more than 1700 δ13C observations of the benthic foraminifera genus Cibicides from late Holocene sediments (δ13CCibnat) are compiled and compared with newly updated estimates of the natural (preindustrial) water column δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDICnat) as part of the international Ocean Circulation and Carbon Cycling (OC3) project. Using selection criteria based on the spatial distance between samples, we find high correlation between δ13CCibnat and δ13CDICnat, confirming earlier work. Regression analyses indicate significant carbonate ion (−2.6 ± 0.4) × 10−3‰/(μmol kg−1) [CO32−] and pressure (−4.9 ± 1.7) × 10−5‰ m−1 (depth) effects, which we use to propose a new global calibration for predicting δ13CDICnat from δ13CCibnat. This calibration is shown to remove some systematic regional biases and decrease errors compared with the one-to-one relationship (δ13CDICnat = δ13CCibnat). However, these effects and the error reductions are relatively small, which suggests that most conclusions from previous studies using a one-to-one relationship remain robust. The remaining standard error of the regression is generally σ ≅ 0.25‰, with larger values found in the southeast Atlantic and Antarctic (σ ≅ 0.4‰) and for species other than Cibicides wuellerstorfi. Discussion of species effects and possible sources of the remaining errors may aid future attempts to improve the use of the benthic δ13C record.
    Description: U.S. National Science Foundation Grant Numbers: 1634719, 0926735, 1125181; Swiss National Science Foundation Grant Numbers: PP00P2_144811, 200021_163003; Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR); Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI); Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC)
    Description: 2017-12-03
    Keywords: Carbon ; Isotopes ; Benthic ; Foraminifera ; Calibration
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2017. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here under a nonexclusive, irrevocable, paid-up, worldwide license granted to WHOI. It is made available for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (2017): 11075-11080, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1704512114.
    Description: The large-scale reorganization of deep-ocean circulation in the Atlantic involving changes in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) played a critical role in regulating hemispheric and global climate during the last deglaciation. However, changes in the relative contributions of NADW and AABW and their properties are poorly constrained by marine records, including δ18O of benthic foraminiferal calcite (δ18Oc). Here we use an isotope-enabled ocean general circulation model with realistic geometry and forcing conditions to simulate the deglacial water mass and δ18O evolution. Model results suggest that in response to North Atlantic freshwater forcing during the early phase of the last deglaciation, NADW nearly collapses while AABW mildly weakens. Rather than reflecting changes in NADW or AABW properties due to freshwater input as suggested previously, the observed phasing difference of deep δ18Oc likely reflects early warming of the deep northern North Atlantic by ~1.4°C while deep Southern Ocean temperature remains largely unchanged. We propose a thermodynamic mechanism to explain the early warming in the North Atlantic, featuring a strong mid-depth warming and enhanced downward heat flux via vertical mixing. Our results emphasize that the way ocean circulation affects heat, a dynamic tracer, is considerably different than how it affects passive tracers like δ18O, and call for caution when inferring water mass changes from δ18Oc records while assuming uniform changes in deep temperatures.
    Description: This work is supported by the U.S. NSF P2C2 projects (1401778 and 1401802) and OCE projects (1600080 and 1566432), China NSFC 41630527, and the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
    Keywords: Atlantic water masses ; Last deglaciation ; Oxygen isotopes ; Deep ocean warming
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-11-01
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology 33 (2018): 1013-1034, doi:10.1029/2018PA003408.
    Description: The chemical composition of benthic foraminifera from marine sediment cores provides information on how glacial subsurface water properties differed from modern, but separating the influence of changes in the origin and end‐member properties of subsurface water from changes in flows and mixing is challenging. Spatial gaps in coverage of glacial data add to the uncertainty. Here we present new data from cores collected from the Demerara Rise in the western tropical North Atlantic, including cores from the modern tropical phosphate maximum at Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) depths. The results suggest lower phosphate concentration and higher carbonate saturation state within the phosphate maximum than modern despite similar carbon isotope values, consistent with less accumulation of respired nutrients and carbon, and reduced air‐sea gas exchange in source waters to the region. An inversion of new and published glacial data confirms these inferences and further suggests that lower preformed nutrients in AAIW, and partial replacement of this still relatively high‐nutrient AAIW with nutrient‐depleted, carbonate‐rich waters sourced from the region of the modern‐day northern subtropics, also contributed to the observed changes. The results suggest that glacial preformed and remineralized phosphate were lower throughout the upper Atlantic, but deep phosphate concentration was higher. The inversion, which relies on the fidelity of the paleoceanographic data, suggests that the partial replacement of North Atlantic sourced deep water by Southern Ocean Water was largely responsible for the apparent deep North Atlantic phosphate increase, rather than greater remineralization.
    Description: National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Numbers: OCE‐0750880, OCE‐1335191, OCE‐1558341, OCE‐1536380; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) Grant Numbers: 27007592, 27000808
    Keywords: Glacial Atlantic circulation ; Preformed phosphate ; Remineralized phosphate ; Antarctic Intermediate Water ; Nutrient redistribution ; Tropical phosphate maximum
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-11-25
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Waelbroeck, C., Lougheed, B. C., Riveiros, N. V., Missiaen, L., Pedro, J., Dokken, T., Hajdas, I., Wacker, L., Abbott, P., Dumoulin, J., Thil, F., Eynaud, F., Rossignol, L., Fersi, W., Albuquerque, A. L., Arz, H., Austin, W. E. N., Came, R., Carlson, A. E., Collins, J. A., Dennielou, B., Desprat, S., Dickson, A., Elliot, M., Farmer, C., Giraudeau, J., Gottschalk, J., Henderiks, J., Hughen, K., Jung, S., Knutz, P., Lebreiro, S., Lund, D. C., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Malaize, B., Marchitto, T., Martinez-Mendez, G., Mollenhauer, G., Naughton, F., Nave, S., Nuernberg, D., Oppo, D., Peck, V., Peeters, F. J. C., Penaud, A., Portilho-Ramos, R. d. C., Repschlaeger, J., Roberts, J., Ruehlemann, C., Salgueiro, E., Goni, M. F. S., Schonfeld, J., Scussolini, P., Skinner, L. C., Skonieczny, C., Thornalley, D., Toucanne, S., Van Rooij, D., Vidal, L., Voelker, A. H. L., Wary, M., Weldeab, S., & Ziegler, M. Consistently dated Atlantic sediment cores over the last 40 thousand years. Scientific Data, 6, (2019): 165, doi:10.1038/s41597-019-0173-8.
    Description: Rapid changes in ocean circulation and climate have been observed in marine-sediment and ice cores over the last glacial period and deglaciation, highlighting the non-linear character of the climate system and underlining the possibility of rapid climate shifts in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. To date, these rapid changes in climate and ocean circulation are still not fully explained. One obstacle hindering progress in our understanding of the interactions between past ocean circulation and climate changes is the difficulty of accurately dating marine cores. Here, we present a set of 92 marine sediment cores from the Atlantic Ocean for which we have established age-depth models that are consistent with the Greenland GICC05 ice core chronology, and computed the associated dating uncertainties, using a new deposition modeling technique. This is the first set of consistently dated marine sediment cores enabling paleoclimate scientists to evaluate leads/lags between circulation and climate changes over vast regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Moreover, this data set is of direct use in paleoclimate modeling studies.
    Description: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013 Grant agreement n° 339108). New 14C dates for cores EW9209-1JPC and V29-202 were funded by NSF OCE grants to DWO. FN, ES and AV acknowledge FCT funding support through project UID/Multi/04326/2019. We thank T. Garlan and P. Guyomard for having given us access to cores from the Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine. We acknowledge N. Smialkowski for help with formatting the data into text files, and L. Mauclair, L. Leroy and G. Isguder for the picking of numerous foraminifer samples for radiocarbon dating. We are grateful to S. Obrochta, E. Cortijo, E. Michel, F. Bassinot, J.C. Duplessy, and L. Labeyrie for advice and fruitful discussions. This paper is LSCE contribution 6572.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-09-26
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 30 (2015): 353–368, doi:10.1002/2014PA002667.
    Description: Approximately synchronous with the onset of Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), δ13C decreased throughout most of the upper (~1000–2500 m) Atlantic, and at some deeper North Atlantic sites. This early deglacial δ13C decrease has been alternatively attributed to a reduced fraction of high-δ13C North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) or to a decrease in the NADW δ13C source value. Here we present new benthic δ18O and δ13C records from three relatively shallow (~1450–1650 m) subpolar Northeast Atlantic cores. With published data from other cores, these data form a depth transect (~1200–3900 m) in the subpolar Northeast Atlantic. We compare Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and HS1 data from this transect with data from a depth transect of cores from the Brazil Margin. The largest LGM-to-HS1 decreases in both benthic δ13C and δ18O occurred in upper waters containing the highest NADW fraction during the LGM. We show that the δ13C decrease can be explained entirely by a lower NADW δ13C source value, entirely by a decrease in the proportion of NADW relative to Southern Ocean Water, or by a combination of these mechanisms. However, building on insights from model simulations, we hypothesize that reduced ventilation due to a weakened but still active Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation also contributed to the low δ13C values in the upper North Atlantic. We suggest that the benthic δ18O gradients above ~2300 m at both core transects indicate the depth to which heat and North Atlantic deglacial freshwater had mixed into the subsurface ocean by early HS1.
    Description: The work was supported by NSF grants OCE13-35191, OCE07-50880, and OCE05-84911 to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Keywords: Heinrich Stadial 1 ; Deglacial d13C minimum ; Atlantic Circulation ; Benthic d18O ; Benthic d13C
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 32 (2017): 1174–1194, doi:10.1002/2017PA003122.
    Description: Mg/Ca and stable oxygen isotope compositions (δ18O) of planktic foraminifera tests are commonly used as proxies to reconstruct past ocean conditions including variations in the vertical water column structure. Accurate proxy calibrations require thorough regional studies, since parameters such as calcification depth and temperature of planktic foraminifera depend on local environmental conditions. Here we present radiocarbon-dated, modern surface sediment samples and water column data (temperature, salinity, and seawater δ18O) from the Western Pacific Warm Pool. Seawater δ18O (δ18OSW) and salinity are used to calculate individual regressions for western Pacific surface and thermocline waters (δ18OSW = 0.37 × S-12.4 and δ18OSW = 0.33 × S-11.0). We combine shell δ18O and Mg/Ca with water column data to estimate calcification depths of several planktic foraminifera and establish regional Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations. Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides elongatus, and Globigerinoides sacculifer reflect mixed layer conditions. Pulleniatina obliquiloculata and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei and Globorotalia tumida preserve upper and lower thermocline conditions, respectively. Our multispecies Mg/Ca-temperature calibration (Mg/Ca = 0.26exp0.097*T) matches published regressions. Assuming the same temperature sensitivity in all species, we propose species-specific calibrations that can be used to reconstruct upper water column temperatures. The Mg/Ca temperature dependencies of G. ruber, G. elongatus, and G. tumida are similar to published equations. However, our data imply that calcification temperatures of G. sacculifer, P. obliquiloculata, and N. dutertrei are exceptionally warm in the western tropical Pacific and thus underestimated by previously published calibrations. Regional Mg/Ca-temperature relations are best described by Mg/Ca = 0.24exp0.097*T for G. sacculifer and by Mg/Ca = 0.21exp0.097*T for P. obliquiloculata and N. dutertrei.
    Description: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) Grant Number: 03G0228A; National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Number: OCE1131371; DFG-Research Center/Cluster of Excellence “The Ocean in the Earth System”
    Description: 2018-05-09
    Keywords: Western Pacific Warm Pool ; Mg/Ca calibration ; Oxygen isotopes ; Planktic foraminifera ; Thermocline reconstruction
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-09-06
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Umling, N. E., Oppo, D. W., Chen, P., Yu, J., Liu, Z., Yan, M., Gebbie, G., Lund, D. C., Pietro, K. R., Jin, Z. D., Huang, K., Costa, K. B., & Toledo, F. A. L. Atlantic circulation and ice sheet influences on upper South Atlantic temperatures during the last deglaciation. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 34(6), (2019): 990-1005, doi:10.1029/2019PA003558.
    Description: Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) disruption during the last deglaciation is hypothesized to have caused large subsurface ocean temperature anomalies, but records from key regions are not available to test this hypothesis, and other possible drivers of warming have not been fully considered. Here, we present the first reliable evidence for subsurface warming in the South Atlantic during Heinrich Stadial 1, confirming the link between large‐scale heat redistribution and AMOC. Warming extends across the Bølling‐Allerød despite predicted cooling at this time, thus spanning intervals of both weak and strong AMOC indicating another forcing mechanism that may have been previously overlooked. Transient model simulations and quasi‐conservative water mass tracers suggest that reduced northward upper ocean heat transport was responsible for the early deglacial (Heinrich Stadial 1) accumulation of heat at our shallower (~1,100 m) site. In contrast, the results suggest that warming at our deeper site (~1,900 m) site was dominated by southward advection of North Atlantic middepth heat anomalies. During the Bølling‐Allerød, the demise of ice sheets resulted in oceanographic changes in the North Atlantic that reduced convective heat loss to the atmosphere, causing subsurface warming that overwhelmed the cooling expected from an AMOC reinvigoration. The data and simulations suggest that rising atmospheric CO2 did not contribute significantly to deglacial subsurface warming at our sites.
    Description: We thank H. Abrams, G. Swarr, and J. Watson for technical assistance. This work was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation grant OCE15‐558341, the Investment in Science Fund at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (FT140100993). The data are included in the supporting information and are available online (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/26530).
    Keywords: Brazil margin ; Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation ; deglacial ; South Atlantic temperatures ; Mg/Li ; Cd/Ca
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 34(7), (2019): 1218-1233, doi:10.1029/2018PA003537.
    Description: The last deglaciation (~20–10 kyr BP) was characterized by a major shift in Earth's climate state, when the global mean surface temperature rose ~4 °C and the concentration of atmospheric CO2 increased ~80 ppmv. Model simulations suggest that the initial 30 ppmv rise in atmospheric CO2 may have been driven by reduced efficiency of the biological pump or enhanced upwelling of carbon‐rich waters from the abyssal ocean. Here we evaluate these hypotheses using benthic foraminiferal B/Ca (a proxy for deep water [CO32−]) from a core collected at 1,100‐m water depth in the Southwest Atlantic. Our results imply that [CO32−] increased by 22 ± 2 μmol/kg early in Heinrich Stadial 1, or a decrease in ΣCO2 of approximately 40 μmol/kg, assuming there were no significant changes in alkalinity. Our data imply that remineralized phosphate declined by approximately 0.3 μmol/kg during Heinrich Stadial 1, equivalent to 40% of the modern remineralized signal at this location. Because tracer inversion results indicate remineralized phosphate at the core site reflects the integrated effect of export production in the sub‐Antarctic, our results imply that biological productivity in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean was reduced early in the deglaciation, contributing to the initial rise in atmospheric CO2.
    Description: We would like to thank Bärbel Hönisch at Lamont‐Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University for help with methods development and Sarah McCart for technical assistance with ICP‐MS analyses. We would also like to give special thanks to Anna lisa Mudahy, who was responsible for picking a substantial portion of the benthic foraminifera used in this study. We are grateful to the WHOI core lab for sample collection and archiving. This work was supported by NSF grant OCE‐1702231 to D. L.
    Description: 2020-01-24
    Keywords: B/Ca ; Last deglaciation ; carbon cycling
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