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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-10-30
    Description: Background: In cancer, large-scale technologies such as next-generation sequencing and microarrays have produced a wide number of genomic features such as DNA copy number alterations (CNA), mRNA expression (EXPR), microRNA expression (MIRNA), and DNA somatic mutations (MUT), among others. Several analyses of a specific type of these genomic data have generated many prognostic biomarkers in cancer. However, it is uncertain which of these data is more powerful and whether the best data-type is cancer-type dependent.Therefore, our purpose is to characterize the prognostic power of models obtained from different genomic data types, cancer types, and algorithms. For this, we compared the prognostic power using the concordance and prognostic index of models obtained from EXPR, MIRNA, CNA, MUT data and their integration for ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV), multiform glioblastoma (GBM), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and breast cancer (BRCA) datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas repository. We used three different algorithms for prognostic model selection based on constrained particle swarm optimization (CPSO), network feature selection (NFS), and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Results: The integration of the four genomic data produced models having slightly higher performance than any single genomic data. From the genomic data types, we observed better prediction using EXPR closely followed by MIRNA and CNA depending on the cancer type and method. We observed higher concordance index in BRCA, followed by LUAD, OV, and GBM. We observed very similar results between LASSO and CPSO but smaller values in NFS. Importantly, we observed that model predictions highly concur between algorithms but are highly discordant between data types, which seems to be dependent on the censoring rate of the dataset. Conclusions: Gene expression (mRNA) generated higher performances, which is marginally improved when other type of genomic data is considered. The level of concordance in prognosis generated from different genomic data types seems to be dependent on censoring rate.
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-0381
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-03-14
    Description: Background: Klebsiella variicola was very recently described as a new bacterial species and is very closely related to Klebsiella pneumoniae; in fact, K. variicola isolates were first identified as K. pneumoniae. Therefore, it might be the case that some isolates, which were initially classified as K. pneumoniae, are actually K. variicola. The aim of this study was to devise a multiplex-PCR probe that can differentiate isolates from these sister species.ResultThis work describes the development of a multiplex-PCR method to identify K. variicola. This development was based on sequencing a K. variicola clinical isolate (801) and comparing it to other K. variicola and K. pneumoniae genomes. The phylogenetic analysis showed that K. variicola isolates form a monophyletic group that is well differentiated from K. pneumoniae. Notably, the isolate K. pneumoniae 342 and K. pneumoniae KP5-1 might have been misclassified because in our analysis, both clustered with K. variicola isolates rather than with K. pneumoniae. The multiplex-PCR (M-PCR-1 to 3) probe system could identify K. variicola with high accuracy using the shared unique genes of K. variicola and K. pneumoniae genomes, respectively. M-PCR-1 was used to assay a collection of multidrug-resistant (503) and antimicrobial-sensitive (557) K. pneumoniae clinical isolates. We found K. variicola with a prevalence of 2.1% (23/1,060), of them a 56.5% (13/23) of the isolates were multidrug resistant, and 43.5% (10/23) of the isolates were antimicrobial sensitive. The phylogenetic analysis of rpoB of K. variicola-positive isolates identified by multiplex-PCR support the correct identification and differentiation of K. variicola from K. pneumoniae clinical isolates. Conclusions: This multiplex-PCR provides the means to reliably identify and genotype K. variicola. This tool could be very helpful for clinical, epidemiological, and population genetics studies of this species. A low but significant prevalence of K. variicola isolates was found, implying that misclassification had occurred previously. We believe that our multiplex-PCR assay could be of paramount importance to understand the population dynamics of K. variicola in both clinical and environmental settings.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2180
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-06-14
    Description: Currently, two pathogenic pathways describe the role of obesity in osteoarthritis (OA); one through biomechanical stress, and the other by the contribution of systemic inflammation. The aim of this study was t...
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-511X
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 4
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: Rhizobia are soil bacteria that establish symbiotic relationships with legumes and fix nitrogen in root nodules. We recently reported that several nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains, belonging to Rhizobium phaseol...
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2164
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-07-28
    Description: Background: The cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory network (PKA-RN) regulates metabolism, memory, learning, development, and response to stress. Previous models of this network considered the catalytic subunits (CS) as a single entity, overlooking their functional individualities. Furthermore, PKA-RN dynamics are often measured through cAMP levels in nutrient-depleted cells shortly after being fed with glucose, dismissing downstream physiological processes. Results: Here we show that temperature stress, along with deletion of PKA-RN genes, significantly affected HSE-dependent gene expression and the dynamics of the PKA-RN in cells growing in exponential phase. Our genetic analysis revealed complex regulatory interactions between the CS that influenced the inhibition of Hsf1/Skn7 transcription factors. Accordingly, we found new roles in growth control and stress response for Hsf1/Skn7 when PKA activity was low (cdc25Δ cells). Experimental results were used to propose an interaction scheme for the PKA-RN and to build an extension of a classic synchronous discrete modeling framework. Our computational model reproduced the experimental data and predicted complex interactions between the CS and the existence of a repressor of Hsf1/Skn7 that is activated by the CS. Additional genetic analysis identified Ssa1 and Ssa2 chaperones as such repressors. Further modeling of the new data foresaw a third repressor of Hsf1/Skn7, active only in theabsence of Tpk2. By averaging the network state over all its attractors, a good quantitative agreement between computational and experimental results was obtained, as the averages reflected more accurately the population measurements. Conclusions: The assumption of PKA being one molecular entity has hindered the study of a wide range of behaviors. Additionally, the dynamics of HSE-dependent gene expression cannot be simulated accurately by considering the activity of single PKA-RN components (i.e., cAMP, individual CS, Bcy1, etc.). We show that the differential roles of the CS are essential to understand the dynamics of the PKA-RN and its targets. Our systems level approach, which combined experimental results with theoretical modeling, unveils the relevance of the interaction scheme for the CS and offers quantitative predictions for several scenarios (WT vs. mutants in PKA-RN genes and growth at optimal temperature vs. heat shock).
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-0509
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-12-14
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in GigaScience 4 (2015): 27, doi:10.1186/s13742-015-0066-5.
    Description: Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.
    Description: This work was supported by the Micro B3 project, which is funded from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7; Joint Call OCEAN.2011‐2: Marine microbial diversity – new insights into marine ecosystems functioning and its biotechnological potential) under the grant agreement no 287589.
    Keywords: Ocean sampling day ; OSD ; Biodiversity ; Genomics ; Health index ; Bacteria ; Microorganism ; Metagenomics ; Marine ; Micro B3 ; Standards
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-12-08
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in GigaScience 5 (2016): 14, doi:10.1186/s13742-016-0118-5.
    Description: Systems biology promises to revolutionize medicine, yet human wellbeing is also inherently linked to healthy societies and environments (sustainability). The IDEA Consortium is a systems ecology open science initiative to conduct the basic scientific research needed to build use-oriented simulations (avatars) of entire social-ecological systems. Islands are the most scientifically tractable places for these studies and we begin with one of the best known: Moorea, French Polynesia. The Moorea IDEA will be a sustainability simulator modeling links and feedbacks between climate, environment, biodiversity, and human activities across a coupled marine–terrestrial landscape. As a model system, the resulting knowledge and tools will improve our ability to predict human and natural change on Moorea and elsewhere at scales relevant to management/conservation actions.
    Description: Work was supported in part by: the Institute of Theoretical Physics and the Pauli Center at ETH Zurich; the US National Science Foundation (NSF Moorea Coral Reef Long Term Ecological Research Site, OCE-1236905; Socio-Ecosystem Dynamics of Natural-Human Networks on Model Islands, CNH-1313830; Coastal SEES: Adaptive Capacity, Resilience, and Coral Reef State Shifts in Social-ecological Systems, OCE-1325652, OCE-1325554); the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (Berkeley Initiative in Global Change Biology; Genomic Standards Consortium); Courtney Ross and the Ross Institute; UC Berkeley Vice Chancellor for Research; CRIOBE; and the France Berkeley Fund (FBF 2014-0015).
    Keywords: Computational ecology ; Biodiversity ; Genomics ; Biocode ; Earth observations ; Social-ecological system ; Ecosystem dynamics ; Climate change scenarios ; Predictive modeling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-11-19
    Description: Background: Controlling sex ratios is essential for the aquaculture industry, especially in those species with sex dimorphism for relevant productive traits, hence the importance of knowing how the sexual phenotype is established in fish. Turbot, a very important fish for the aquaculture industry in Europe, shows one of the largest sexual growth dimorphisms amongst marine cultured species, being all-female stocks a desirable goal for the industry. Although important knowledge has been achieved on the genetic basis of sex determination (SD) in this species, the master SD gene remains unknown and precise information on gene expression at the critical stage of sex differentiation is lacking. In the present work, we examined the expression profiles of 29 relevant genes related to sex differentiation, from 60 up to 135 days post fertilization (dpf), when gonads are differentiating. We also considered the influence of three temperature regimes on sex differentiation. Results: The first sex-related differences in molecular markers could be observed at 90 days post fertilization (dpf) and so we have called that time the onset of sex differentiation. Three genes were the first to show differential expression between males and females and also allowed us to sex turbot accurately at the onset of sex differentiation (90 dpf): cyp19a1a, amh and vasa. The expression of genes related to primordial germ cells (vasa, gsdf, tdrd1) started to increase between 75–90 dpf and vasa and tdrd1 later presented higher expression in females (90-105 dpf). Two genes placed on the SD region of turbot (sox2, fxr1) did not show any expression pattern suggestive of a sex determining function. We also detected changes in the expression levels of several genes (ctnnb1, cyp11a, dmrt2 or sox6) depending on culture temperature. Conclusion: Our results enabled us to identify the first sex-associated genetic cues (cyp19a1a, vasa and amh) at the initial stages of gonad development in turbot (90 dpf) and to accurately sex turbot at this age, establishing the correspondence between gene expression profiles and histological sex. Furthermore, we profiled several genes involved in sex differentiation and found specific temperature effects on their expression.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2164
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-11-24
    Description: Background: Force generation and the material properties of cells and tissues are central to morphogenesis but remain difficult to measure in vivo. Insight is often limited to the ratios of mechanical properties obtained through disruptive manipulation, and the appropriate models relating stress and strain are unknown. The Drosophila amnioserosa epithelium progressively contracts over 3 hours of dorsal closure, during which cell apices exhibit area fluctuations driven by medial myosin pulses with periods of 1.5–6 min. Linking these two timescales and understanding how pulsatile contractions drive morphogenetic movements is an urgent challenge. Results: We present a novel framework to measure in a continuous manner the mechanical properties of epithelial cells in the natural context of a tissue undergoing morphogenesis. We show that the relationship between apicomedial myosin fluorescence intensity and strain during fluctuations is consistent with a linear behaviour, although with a lag. We thus used myosin fluorescence intensity as a proxy for active force generation and treated cells as natural experiments of mechanical response under cyclic loading, revealing unambiguous mechanical properties from the hysteresis loop relating stress to strain. Amnioserosa cells can be described as a contractile viscoelastic fluid. We show that their emergent mechanical behaviour can be described by a linear viscoelastic rheology at timescales relevant for tissue morphogenesis. For the first time, we establish relative changes in separate effective mechanical properties in vivo. Over the course of dorsal closure, the tissue solidifies and effective stiffness doubles as net contraction of the tissue commences. Combining our findings with those from previous laser ablation experiments, we show that both apicomedial and junctional stress also increase over time, with the relative increase in apicomedial stress approximately twice that of other obtained measures. Conclusions: Our results show that in an epithelial tissue undergoing net contraction, stiffness and stress are coupled. Dorsal closure cell apical contraction is driven by the medial region where the relative increase in stress is greater than that of stiffness. At junctions, by contrast, the relative increase in the mechanical properties is the same, so the junctional contribution to tissue deformation is constant over time. An increase in myosin activity is likely to underlie, at least in part, the change in medioapical properties and we suggest that its greater effect on stress relative to stiffness is fundamental to actomyosin systems and confers on tissues the ability to regulate contraction rates in response to changes in external mechanics.
    Electronic ISSN: 1741-7007
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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