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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (11)
  • Oxford University Press  (7)
  • Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)
  • 2015-2019  (14)
  • 2010-2014  (5)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: Eine beträchtliche Zahl gerade unter den älteren Arbeitslosen weist vielfältige Vermittlungshemmnisse auf. Ihre Integration in Beschäftigung stellt eine Herausforderung für die Arbeitsmarktpolitik dar. Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht stellt Ergebnisse eines Programms für ältere besonders arbeitsmarktferne ALG-II-Beziehende vor, das innerhalb des Bundesprogramms Perspektive 50plus angesiedelt ist. In diesem Teilprogramm unter der Bezeichnung Impuls 50plus werden Teilnehmende bis zu 36 Monate intensiver gefördert als dies in der Regelförderung möglich ist. Am Ziel einer Integration in ungeförderte Beschäftigung wurde mit Impuls 50plus festgehalten, die Ziele der sozialen Teilhabe und der Steigerung bzw. Wiederherstellung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit gegenüber der Regelförderung jedoch aufgewertet. Charakteristisch waren zudem große Spielräume für die lokalen Arbeitsmarktdienstleister bei der Umsetzung von Impuls 50plus. Untersucht wurde der Zusammenhang von regionalen Strukturen und Strategien der Umsetzung von Impuls 50plus und den Erfolgen bei der Aktivierung und der Integration der Teilnehmenden: Welche Elemente der regionalen Umsetzung sind bei der Aktivierung und Integration der Zielgruppe besonders erfolgsträchtig? Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Stabilisierung bzw. Erhöhung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit und die Integration in Beschäftigung keine gegensätzlichen Ziele sind. Gerade in Grundsicherungsstellen mit jenen Umsetzungsvarianten, die die Förderung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit, der sozialen Stabilisierung und gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe betonen, ist die Integrationswahrscheinlichkeit höher als in Grundsicherungsstellen mit Umsetzungsvarianten, die auf gesellschaftliche Teilhabe weniger Wert legen und deutlicher Erwerbsintegration anstreben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen darüber hinaus, dass Arbeitsmarktdienstleister eine Tendenz zum Creaming aufweisen, die durch klare Vorgaben zur Definition des förderfähigen Personenkreises und zur Vergütung der Arbeitsmarktdienstleister begrenzt, aber nicht vollständig eliminiert werden kann.
    Description: A considerable number of people, particularly the older unemployed, exhibit a variety of barriers to placement. Integrating them into employment constitutes a challenge for labor market policy. The current research report presents the results of a program aimed at older persons receiving means-tested unemployment benefit (ALG II) who have multiple placement obstacles; it is located within the Federal Program "Perspektive 50plus" (Perspectives 50-plus). In the sub-program, entitled "Impuls 50plus" (Impulse 50-plus), the participants are supported in a more intensive way for up to 36 months than is possible via standard support. While with Impulse 50-plus the aim of integration into unsubsidized employment has been retained, more emphasis has been placed - in contrast to regular support - on the goals of social inclusion as well as enhancement and/or reconstitution of employability. What is also characteristic is the greater discretion enjoyed by local labor market service providers in implementing Impulse 50-plus. The research program has examined the connection between regional structures and strategies in implementing Impulse 50-plus, along with the successes achieved in activating and integrating those taking part: What elements of regional implementation are particularly likely to succeed in activating and integrating the target group? The results show that the stabilization and/or the enhancement of employability and integration into employment are not opposing goals. Particularly in job centers with implementation variants emphasizing the support of employability, social stabilization and inclusion in society, the likelihood of integration is higher than in job centers with implementation variants that lay less priority on social inclusion and strive more clearly towards integration into employment. In addition, the results show that labor market service providers have a tendency towards 'creaming' which can be partially limited by clear specifications regarding the definition of the circle of persons eligible for support and the way the labor market service providers are remunerated, but cannot be eliminated completely.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
    Description: Migratory behavior in birds is evolutionarily plastic, but it is unclear how this behavior responded during glacial cycles. One view is that at glacial maxima, species simply shifted their breeding ranges south of glacial ice and remained migratory. To test this hypothesis, we constructed ecological niche models for breeding and wintering ranges of 56 species, finding that 70% of currently long-distance North American migrant species likely lacked suitable breeding habitat in North America at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and we hypothesized that they reverted to the ancestral state of being tropical sedentary residents. A smaller percentage of short-distance migrants (27%) experienced altered migratory behavior at the LGM, although the ranges of all species were shifted southward, as traditionally envisioned. We suggest that many species oscillate between sedentary and migratory strategies with each glacial cycle acting as an adaptive switch. Thus, range shifts occur more frequently than speciation events and are inadequately depicted by phylogenetic reconstructions. We suggest that reconstructing the evolutionary history of traits, such as migratory behavior, is best served by using ranges at glacial maxima. A phylogeny of warblers strongly predicted LGM, but not present distributions, and suggested that migration was re-expressed from three tropical centers of warbler diversity. Understanding of evolutionary history will be improved when reconstructions use distributions relevant to the time of character transitions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-02-16
    Description: Transcriptional and splicing anomalies have been observed in intron 8 of the CASP8 gene (encoding procaspase-8) in association with cutaneous basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) and linked to a germline SNP rs700635. Here, we show that the rs700635[C] allele, which is associated with increased risk of BCC and breast cancer, is protective against prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91, P = 1.0 x 10 –6 ]. rs700635[C] is also associated with failures to correctly splice out CASP8 intron 8 in breast and prostate tumours and in corresponding normal tissues. Investigation of rs700635[C] carriers revealed that they have a human-specific short interspersed element-variable number of tandem repeat- Alu (SINE-VNTR- Alu ), subfamily-E retrotransposon (SVA-E) inserted into CASP8 intron 8. The SVA-E shows evidence of prior activity, because it has transduced some CASP8 sequences during subsequent retrotransposition events. Whole-genome sequence (WGS) data were used to tag the SVA-E with a surrogate SNP rs1035142[T] ( r 2 = 0.999), which showed associations with both the splicing anomalies ( P = 6.5 x 10 –32 ) and with protection against prostate cancer (OR = 0.91, P = 3.8 x 10 –7 ).
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: From historical and archeological records, it is posited that the European medieval household was a combination of close relatives and recruits. However, this kinship structure has not yet been directly tested at a genomic level on medieval burials. The early 7th century CE burial at Niederstotzingen, discovered in 1962, is the most complete and richest example of Alemannic funerary practice in Germany. Excavations found 13 individuals who were buried with an array of inscribed bridle gear, jewelry, armor, and swords. These artifacts support the view that the individuals had contact with France, northern Italy, and Byzantium. This study analyzed genome-wide sequences recovered from the remains, in tandem with analysis of the archeological context, to reconstruct kinship and the extent of outside contact. Eleven individuals had sufficient DNA preservation to genetically sex them as male and identify nine unique mitochondrial haplotypes and two distinct Y chromosome lineages. Genome-wide analyses were performed on eight individuals to estimate genetic affiliation to modern west Eurasians and genetic kinship at the burial. Five individuals were direct relatives. Three other individuals were not detectably related; two of these showed genomic affinity to southern Europeans. The genetic makeup of the individuals shares no observable pattern with their orientation in the burial or the cultural association of their grave goods, with the five related individuals buried with grave goods associated with three diverse cultural origins. These findings support the idea that not only were kinship and fellowship held in equal regard: Diverse cultural appropriation was practiced among closely related individuals as well.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-04-03
    Description: When an accretion disc falls prey to the runaway instability, a large portion of its mass is devoured by the black hole within a few dynamical times. Despite decades of effort, it is still unclear under what conditions such an instability can occur. The technically most advanced relativistic simulations to date were unable to find a clear sign for the onset of the instability. In this work, we present three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs around black holes in dynamical space–time. We focus on the configurations that are expected to be particularly prone to the development of this instability. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the fully self-consistent general relativistic evolution does indeed produce a runaway instability.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-05-24
    Description: We demonstrate that tidal evolution of the inner planet (‘e’) of the system orbiting the star 55 Cancri could have led to passage through two secular resonances with other planets in the system. The consequence of this evolution is excitation of both the planetary eccentricity and inclination relative to the original orbital plane. The large mass ratio between the innermost planet and the others means that these excitations can be of substantial amplitude and can have dramatic consequences for the system organization. Such evolution can potentially explain the large observed mutual inclination between the innermost and outermost planets in the system, and implies that tidal heating could have substantially modified the structure of planet e, and possibly reduced its mass by Roche lobe overflow. Similar inner secular resonances may be found in many multiple planet systems and suggest that many of the innermost planets in these systems could have suffered similar evolutions.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-03-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bolon, Brad -- Altrock, Bruce -- Barthold, Stephen W -- Baumgarth, Nicole -- Besselsen, David -- Boivin, Gregory -- Boyd, Kelli L -- Brayton, Cory -- Cardiff, Robert D -- Couto, Suzana -- Eaton, Kathryn A -- Foreman, Oded -- Griffey, Stephen M -- La Perle, Krista -- Lairmore, Michael D -- Liu, Chen -- Meyerholz, David K -- Nikitin, Alexander Yu -- Schoeb, Trenton R -- Schwahn, Denise -- Sellers, Rani S -- Sundberg, John P -- Tolwani, Ravi -- Valli, Victor E -- Zink, M Christine -- U01 CA141582/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Mar 25;331(6024):1516-7. doi: 10.1126/science.331.6024.1516-b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21436422" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/*organization & administration ; Translational Medical Research/*organization & administration ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: The stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human pathogens. It has dispersed globally with its human host, resulting in a distinct phylogeographic pattern that can be used to reconstruct both recent and ancient human migrations. The extant European population of H. pylori is known to be a hybrid between Asian and African bacteria, but there exist different hypotheses about when and where the hybridization took place, reflecting the complex demographic history of Europeans. Here, we present a 5300-year-old H. pylori genome from a European Copper Age glacier mummy. The "Iceman" H. pylori is a nearly pure representative of the bacterial population of Asian origin that existed in Europe before hybridization, suggesting that the African population arrived in Europe within the past few thousand years.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4775254/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4775254/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Maixner, Frank -- Krause-Kyora, Ben -- Turaev, Dmitrij -- Herbig, Alexander -- Hoopmann, Michael R -- Hallows, Janice L -- Kusebauch, Ulrike -- Vigl, Eduard Egarter -- Malfertheiner, Peter -- Megraud, Francis -- O'Sullivan, Niall -- Cipollini, Giovanna -- Coia, Valentina -- Samadelli, Marco -- Engstrand, Lars -- Linz, Bodo -- Moritz, Robert L -- Grimm, Rudolf -- Krause, Johannes -- Nebel, Almut -- Moodley, Yoshan -- Rattei, Thomas -- Zink, Albert -- 2P50 GM076547/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM076547/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087221/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027584/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):162-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2545.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. frank.maixner@eurac.edu albert.zink@eurac.edu. ; Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Kiel University, Schittenhelmstrasse 12, 24105 Kiel, Germany. ; CUBE-Division of Computational Systems Biology, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria. ; Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tubingen, Rumelinstrasse 23, 72072 Tubingen, Germany. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany. ; Institute for Systems Biology, 401 Terry Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; Scuola Superiore Sanitaria Provinciale "Claudiana," Via Lorenz Bohler 13, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. ; Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Strasse 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany. ; Universite de Bordeaux, Centre National de Reference des Helicobacters et Campylobacters and INSERM U853, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France. ; Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. ; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 141 83 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. ; Robert Mondavi Institute for Food Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Department of Zoology, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, Republic of South Africa. Department of Integrative Biology and Evolution, Konrad Lorenz Institute for Ethology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Savoyenstrasse 1a, 1160 Vienna, Austria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744403" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Asia ; Chromosome Mapping ; DNA, Bacterial/genetics/isolation & purification ; Europe ; Genome, Bacterial/*genetics ; Helicobacter Infections/*microbiology ; Helicobacter pylori/*genetics/isolation & purification ; Human Migration ; Humans ; *Hybridization, Genetic ; Ice Cover/microbiology ; Mummies/microbiology ; Phylogeny ; Phylogeography ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Stomach/*microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-21
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Genetic diversity arises from recombination and de novo mutation (DNM). Using a combination of microarray genotype and whole-genome sequence data on parent-child pairs, we identified 4,531,535 crossover recombinations and 200,435 DNMs. The resulting genetic map has a resolution of 682 base pairs. Crossovers exhibit a mutagenic effect, with overrepresentation of DNMs within 1 kilobase of crossovers in males and females. In females, a higher mutation rate is observed up to 40 kilobases from crossovers, particularly for complex crossovers, which increase with maternal age. We identified 35 loci associated with the recombination rate or the location of crossovers, demonstrating extensive genetic control of meiotic recombination, and our results highlight genes linked to the formation of the synaptonemal complex as determinants of crossovers.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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