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  • 2015-2019  (131)
  • 1960-1964  (1)
  • 1870-1879  (2)
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  • 1
  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    De economist 22 (1873), S. 459-487 
    ISSN: 1572-9982
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    De economist 22 (1873), S. 321-338 
    ISSN: 1572-9982
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-12-31
    Description: This study addresses key processes in high-energy beach systems using an interdisciplinary approach. We assess spatial variations in subsurface pore water residence times, salinity, organic matter (OM) availability, and redox conditions and their effects on nutrient cycles as well as on microbial community patterns and microphytobenthos growth. At the study site on Spiekeroog Island, southern North Sea, beach hydrology is characterized by the classical zonation with an upper saline plume (USP), a saltwater wedge, and a freshwater discharge tube in between. Sediment and pore water samples were taken along a cross-shore transect from the dunes to the low water line reaching sediment depths down to 5 m below sediment surface. Spatial variations in pore water residence time, salinity, and organic matter availability lead to steep redox and nutrient gradients. Vertical and horizontal differences in the microbial community indicate the influence of these gradients and salinity on the community structure. Modeled seawater flux through the USP and freshwater flux through the tube are on average 2.8 and 0.75 m3 per day and meter of shoreline, respectively. Furthermore, ridge sediments at the lower beach discharge seawater at rates of 0.5 and 1.0 m3 per day and meter of shoreline towards the runnel and seaside, respectively. Applying seawater and freshwater fluxes and representative nutrient concentrations for the discharge zones, nutrient fluxes to adjacent nearshore waters are 117 mmol NH4+, 55 mmol PO43 − and 575 mmol Si(OH)4 per day and meter of shoreline. We propose that this nutrient efflux triggers growth of microphytobenthos on sediment surfaces of the discharge zone. A first comparison of nutrient discharge rates of the beach site with a nearby sandy backbarrier tidal flat margin indicates that the beach system might be of less importance in supplying recycled nutrients to nearshore waters than the backbarrier tidal flat area.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-01-26
    Description: Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agarreconstituted food), but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and compensatory responses of different seagrass species.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Hat die Einführung des Euro zu einer Verbesserung oder gar zu einer Verringerung des deutschen Wohlstands geführt? Daniel Stelter, Gründer des Diskussionsforums »Beyond the Obvious« und Unternehmensberater, kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass der Euro zu einer Verringerung des deutschen Wohlstands und der langfristigen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit geführt hat, und führt dafür zehn Argumente an. Seiner Meinung nach stellt sich für den »Durchschnittsdeutschen« die Geschichte so dar: Die Einführung des Euro führte zu einer langen Phase geringen Wachstums, hoher Arbeitslosigkeit und Lohnstagnation. Der Staat hat Ausgaben für Sozialleistungen und Infrastruktur und Investitionen gekürzt. Die Wirtschaft musste sich auf den Export konzentrieren, und die Ersparnisse wurden dazu genutzt, Lieferantenkredite zu gewähren. Jetzt, wo diese Kredite nicht bezahlt werden können, müssen wiederum die deutschen Sparer und Steuerzahler für den Schaden aufkommen. Ohne den Euro hätte es die Schuldenparty im Süden nicht gegeben, aber auch nicht die großen Exportüberschüsse. Dafür einen höheren Lebensstandard und bessere Infrastruktur in Deutschland. Nach Ansicht von Karlhans Sauernheimer, Universität Mainz, profitieren in Deutschland die Exportwirtschaft, die Eigentümer der exportierenden Unternehmen sowie die dort Beschäftigten von der Euroeinführung. Die Verlierer sind die importierenden Inländer, Konsumenten, Produzenten und Arbeitnehmer, die alle höhere Importpreise zahlen müssen als bei marktgerechten realen Wechselkursen. Eine zweite Umverteilung läuft von den Beschäftigten zu den Kapitalbesitzern. Die zu hohen Exporte/zu geringeren Investitionen kommen einem Kapitalexport gleich. Der Kapitalstock ist damit im Inland geringer, die Arbeitsnachfrage zu seiner Beschäftigung geht zurück. Die Reallöhne oder die Beschäftigung werden sinken, die Kapitalrenditen steigen. Eine dritte Umverteilung findet zwischen »dem Schuldner Staat und den Gläubigern Private Haushalte« statt. Der Bundesfinanzminister ist der
    Keywords: F34 ; H63 ; G01 ; ddc:330 ; Euro ; Deutschland ; Schuldenkrise ; Eurozone
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Marine macrophytes are the foundation of algal forests and seagrass meadows-some of the most productive and diverse coastal marine ecosystems on the planet. These ecosystems provide nursery grounds and food for fish and invertebrates, coastline protection from erosion, carbon sequestration, and nutrient fixation. For marine macrophytes, temperature is generally the most important range limiting factor, and ocean warming is considered the most severe threat among global climate change factors. Ocean warming induced losses of dominant macrophytes along their equatorial range edges, as well as range extensions into polar regions, are predicted and already documented. While adaptive evolution based on genetic change is considered too slow to keep pace with the increasing rate of anthropogenic environmental changes, rapid adaptation may come about through a set of non-genetic mechanisms involving the functional composition of the associated microbiome, as well as epigenetic modification of the genome and its regulatory effect on gene expression and the activity of transposable elements. While research in terrestrial plants demonstrates that the integration of non-genetic mechanisms provide a more holistic picture of a species' evolutionary potential, research in marine systems is lagging behind. Here, we aim to review the potential of marine macrophytes to acclimatize and adapt to major climate change effects via intraspecific variation at the genetic, epigenetic, and microbiome levels. All three levels create phenotypic variation that may either enhance fitness within individuals (plasticity) or be subject to selection and ultimately, adaptation. We review three of the most important phenotypic variations in a climate change context, including physiological variation, variation in propagation success, and in herbivore resistance. Integrating different levels of plasticity, and adaptability into ecological models will allow to obtain a more holistic understanding of trait variation and a realistic assessment of the future performance and distribution of marine macrophytes. Such multi-disciplinary approach that integrates various levels of intraspecific variation, and their effect on phenotypic and physiological variation, is of crucial importance for the effective management and conservation of seagrasses and macroalgae under climate change.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-09-07
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-31
    Description: A millimeter-wave survey over half the sky, that spans frequencies in the range of 30 to 350 gigahertz, and that is both an order of magnitude deeper and of higher-resolution than currently funded surveys would yield an enormous gain in understanding of both fundamental physics and astrophysics. By providing such a deep, high-resolution millimeter-wave survey (about 0.5 microK-arcminutes noise and 15 arcseconds resolution at 150 gigahertz), CMB-HD (Cosmic Microwave Background - Henry Draper catalog entry) will enable major advances. It will allow 1) the use of gravitational lensing of the primordial microwave background to map the distribution of matter on small scales (k approximately equal to 10 h per megaparsec), which probes dark matter particle properties. It will also allow 2) measurements of the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects on small scales to map the gas density and gas pressure profiles of halos over a wide field, which probes galaxy evolution and cluster astrophysics. In addition, CMB-HD would allow us to cross critical thresholds in fundamental physics: 3) ruling out or detecting any new, light (less than 0.1 electronvolts), thermal particles, which could potentially be the dark matter, and 4) testing a wide class of multi-field models that could explain an epoch of inflation in the early Universe. Such a survey would also 5) monitor the transient sky by mapping the full observing region every few days, which opens a new window on gamma-ray bursts, novae, fast radio bursts, and variable active galactic nuclei. Moreover, CMB-HD would 6) provide a census of planets, dwarf planets, and asteroids in the outer Solar System, and 7) enable the detection of exo-Oort clouds around other solar systems, shedding light on planet formation. The combination of CMB-HD with contemporary ground and space-based experiments will also provide powerful synergies. CMB-HD will deliver this survey in 5 years of observing 20,000 square degrees, using two new 30-meter-class off-axis cross-Dragone telescopes to be located at Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert. The telescopes will field about 2.4 million detectors (600,000 pixels) in total. The CMB-HD survey will be made publicly available, with usability and accessibility a priority.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN70476
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report a measurement of the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing from two seasons of Atacama Cosmology Telescope polarimeter (ACTPol) CMB data. The CMB lensing power spectrum is extracted from both temperature and polarization data using quadratic estimators. We obtain results that are consistent with the expectation from the best-fit Planck CDM model over a range of multipoles L 80-2100, with an amplitude of lensing A(sub lens) = 1.06 +/- 0.15 stat +/- 0.06 sys relative to Planck. Our measurement of the CMB lensing power spectrum gives sigma 8 omega m(sup 0.25) = 0.643 +/- 0.054; including baryon acoustic oscillation scale data, we constrain the amplitude of density fluctuations to be sigma 8 = 0.831 +/- 0.053. We also update constraints on the neutrino mass sum. We verify our lensing measurement with a number of null tests and systematic checks, finding no evidence of significant systematic errors. This measurement relies on a small fraction of the ACTPol data already taken; more precise lensing results can therefore be expected from the full ACTPol data set.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN44620 , Physical Review D (ISSN 1550-7998) (e-ISSN 1089-4918); 95; 12; 123529
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