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  • 2015-2019  (51)
  • 1910-1914  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0863-1778
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0863-1778
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Aus den Versuchen ergibt sich, daß Cuprohydrid bei der Reaktion zwischen Kupfersulfat und unterphosphoriger Säure entsteht, daß aber die Reinheit des Produktes von begrenzten Versuchsbedingungen, besonders von Temperatur und Zeit abhängt. Die Versuche bei gewöhnlicher Temperatur zeigen, daß nach mehrstündigem Stehen das Produkt Hydrid und Oxyd enthält, und auf die Koexistenz dieser beiden Stoffe ist die Explosionsfähigkeit der trockenen Substanz bei Berührung mit Luft zurückzuführen.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Changes in urine chemistry, during and post-flight, potentially alter the likelihood of renal stones in astronauts. Although much is known about the effects of space flight on urine chemistry, no inflight incidences of renal stones in US astronauts exist and the question How much does this risk change with space flight? remains difficult to accurately quantify. Previous work by our group has illustrated the application of multi-factor deterministic and probabilistic modeling to assess the change in predicted likelihood of renal stone. Utilizing 1517 astronaut urine chemistries to inform the renal stone occurrence rate forecasting model, we performed a sensitivity analysis on urine chemistry components for their influence on predictions of renal stone size and rate of renal stone occurrence.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN51722 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigator''s Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); Jan 22, 2018 - Jan 25, 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A wide range of computational models and analyses have been applied to spaceflight risk assessment and countermeasure development. The benefits of using computational modeling to enhance Human Research Program (HRP) goals include the ability to mathematically represent physiological systems, integrate multiple, discrete experimental measures, span multiple temporal and spatial scales, determine important factors within the system and provide estimates of unmeasurable quantities. In the area of application, computational models provide a means of developing simulations to test hypotheses, determining key factors of the system to aid experimental design and bridging gaps in sparse data by mathematically simulating large populations. Specifically, computational models and their supporting analysis tools have the proven potential to integrate analyses of risk factors to enhance mission planning and preparation capabilities and to inform spacecraft design and countermeasure development. Appropriately applied, computational models may allow intelligent, unbiased physiological parameter assessment to enable hypothesis testing and model based design of experiments. HRP recently formed the Computational Modeling Project (CMP), managed out of Glenn Research Center, as a cross-cutting activity aimed at leveraging the growing power and acceptance of computational modeling in informing clinical, physiological, and biological studies. This presentation will provide an overview of the challenges and opportunities in implementing various forms of computational models in support of the HRPs path to risk reduction.
    Keywords: Computer Programming and Software; Aerospace Medicine
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN51675 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators'' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); Jan 22, 2018 - Jan 25, 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A key component in the development of NASA Human Research Programs (HRP) next generation risk model, the Medical Extensible Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment Tool (MEDPRAT) intends to deliver a means to quantify how HRP products impact astronaut medical and health risks. MEDPRAT is extensible to the majority of exploration missions. Similar to other risk models, the tool utilizes the available space and terrestrial medical data. MEDPRAT is designed to be extended with additional human health research information, medical equipment, space and terrestrial standards and practices to assess space flight medical risk in a manner consistent with other risk measures used in spacecraft and mission design. This tool provides risk-based medical system design information necessary to evaluate new technologies, procedures, research insights and mission plans.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN51673 , 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators'' Workshop (HRP IWS 2018); Jan 22, 2018 - Jan 25, 2018; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: Renal stone disease is not only a concern on earth but can conceivably pose a serious risk to the astronauts health and safety in Space. In this work, two different deterministic models based on a Population Balance Equation (PBE) analysis of renal stone formation are developed to assess the risks of critical renal stone incidence for astronauts during space travel. In the first model, the nephron is treated as a continuous mixed suspension mixed product removal crystallizer and the PBE for the nucleating, growing and agglomerating renal calculi is coupled to speciation calculations performed by JESS. Predictions of stone size distributions in the kidney using this model indicate that the astronaut in microgravity is at noticeably greater but still subcritical risk and recommend administration of citrate and augmented hydration as effective means of minimizing and containing this risk. In the second model, the PBE analysis is coupled to a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for flow of urine and transport of Calcium and Oxalate in the nephron to predict the impact of gravity on the stone size distributions. Results presented for realistic 3D tubule and collecting duct geometries, clearly indicate that agglomeration is the primary mode of size enhancement in both 1g and microgravity. 3D numerical simulations seem to further indicate that there will be an increased number of smaller stones developed in microgravity that will likely pass through the nephron in the absence of wall adhesion. However, upon reentry to a 1g (Earth) or 38g (Mars) partial gravitational fields, the renal calculi can lag behind the urinary flow in tubules that are adversely oriented with respect to the gravitational field and grow agglomerate to large sizes that are sedimented near the wall with increased propensity for wall adhesion, plaque formation, and risk to the astronauts.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN29710 , 2016 HRP Investigators'' Workshop; Feb 08, 2016 - Feb 11, 2016; Houston, TX; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a concern for long-duration space flight. Current thinking suggests that the ocular changes observed in VIIP syndrome are related to cephalad fluid shifts resulting in altered fluid pressures [1]. In particular, we hypothesize that increased intracranial pressure (ICP) drives connective tissue remodeling of the posterior eye and optic nerve sheath (ONS). We describe here finite element (FE) modeling designed to understand how altered pressures, particularly altered ICP, affect the tissues of the posterior eye and optic nerve sheath (ONS) in VIIP. METHODS: Additional description of the modeling methodology is provided in the companion IWS abstract by Feola et al. In brief, a geometric model of the posterior eye and optic nerve, including the ONS, was created and the effects of fluid pressures on tissue deformations were simulated. We considered three ICP scenarios: an elevated ICP assumed to occur in chronic microgravity, and ICP in the upright and supine positions on earth. Within each scenario we used Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to consider a range of ICPs, ONH tissue mechanical properties, intraocular pressures (IOPs) and mean arterial pressures (MAPs). The outcome measures were biomechanical strains in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve and retina; here we focus on peak values of these strains, since elevated strain alters cell phenotype and induce tissue remodeling. In 3D, the strain field can be decomposed into three orthogonal components, denoted as first, second and third principal strains. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: For baseline material properties, increasing ICP from 0 to 20 mmHg significantly changed strains within the posterior eye and ONS (Fig. 1), indicating that elevated ICP affects ocular tissue biomechanics. Notably, strains in the lamina cribrosa and retina became less extreme as ICP increased; however, within the optic nerve, the occurrence of such extreme strains greatly increased as ICP was elevated (Fig. 2). In particular, c. 48 of simulations in the elevated ICP condition showed peak strains in the optic nerve that exceeded the strains expected on earth. Such extreme strains are likely important, since they represent a larger signal for mechano-responsive resident cells [2]. The models predicted little to no anterior motion of the prelaminar neural tissue (optic nerve swelling, or papilledema, secondary to axoplasmic stasis), typically seen with elevated ICP. Specialized FE models to capture axoplasmic stasis would be required to study papilledema. These results suggest that the most notable effect of elevated ICP may occur via direct optic nerve loading, rather than through connective tissue deformation. These FE models can inform the design of future studies designed to bridge the gap between biomechanics and pathophysiological function in VIIP.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN29727 , 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators'' Workshop; Feb 08, 2016 - Feb 11, 2016; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) provided observed medical event data on 33 ISS and 111 STS person-missions for use in further improving and validating the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). Using only the crew characteristics from these observed missions, the newest development version, IMM v4.0, will simulate these missions to predict medical events and outcomes. Comparing IMM predictions to the actual observed medical event counts will provide external validation and identify areas of possible improvement. In an effort to improve the power of detecting differences in this validation study, the total over each program ISS and STS will serve as the main quantitative comparison objective, specifically the following parameters: total medical events (TME), probability of loss of crew life (LOCL), and probability of evacuation (EVAC). Scatter plots of observed versus median predicted TMEs (with error bars reflecting the simulation intervals) will graphically display comparisons while linear regression will serve as the statistical test of agreement. Two scatter plots will be analyzed 1) where each point reflects a mission and 2) where each point reflects a condition-specific total number of occurrences. The coefficient of determination (R2) resulting from a linear regression with no intercept bias (intercept fixed at zero) will serve as an overall metric of agreement between IMM and the real world system (RWS). In an effort to identify as many possible discrepancies as possible for further inspection, the -level for all statistical tests comparing IMM predictions to observed data will be set to 0.1. This less stringent criterion, along with the multiple testing being conducted, should detect all perceived differences including many false positive signals resulting from random variation. The results of these analyses will reveal areas of the model requiring adjustment to improve overall IMM output, which will thereby provide better decision support for mission critical applications.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN29728 , 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators'' Workshop; Dec 08, 2016 - Dec 11, 2016; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: MOTIVATION: Spaceflight countermeasures mitigate the harmful effects of the space environment on astronaut health and performance. Exercise has historically been used as a countermeasure to physical deconditioning, and additional countermeasures including lower body negative pressure, blood flow occlusion and artificial gravity are being researched as countermeasures to spaceflight-induced fluid shifts. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project uses computational models of physiological systems to inform countermeasure design and to predict countermeasure efficacy.OVERVIEW: Computational modeling supports the development of the exercise devices that will be flown on NASAs new exploration crew vehicles. Biomechanical modeling is used to inform design requirements to ensure that exercises can be properly performed within the volume allocated for exercise and to determine whether the limited mass, volume and power requirements of the devices will affect biomechanical outcomes. Models of muscle atrophy and bone remodeling can predict device efficacy for protecting musculoskeletal health during long-duration missions. A lumped-parameter whole-body model of the fluids within the body, which includes the blood within the cardiovascular system, the cerebral spinal fluid, interstitial fluid and lymphatic system fluid, estimates compartmental changes in pressure and volume due to gravitational changes. These models simulate fluid shift countermeasure effects and predict the associated changes in tissue strain in areas of physiological interest to aid in predicting countermeasure effectiveness. SIGNIFICANCE: Development and testing of spaceflight countermeasure prototypes are resource-intensive efforts. Computational modeling can supplement this process by performing simulations that reduce the amount of necessary experimental testing. Outcomes of the simulations are often important for the definition of design requirements and the identification of factors essential in ensuring countermeasure efficacy.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN41999 , Aerospace Medical Association Annual Scientific Meeting; Apr 29, 2017 - May 04, 2017; Denver, CO; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Changes in urine chemistry, during and post flight, potentially increases the risk of renal stones in astronauts. Although much is known about the effects of space flight on urine chemistry, no inflight incidences of renal stones in US astronauts exists and the question How much does this risk change with space flight? remains difficult to accurately quantify. In this discussion, we tackle this question utilizing a combination of deterministic and probabilistic modeling that implements the physics behind free stone growth and agglomeration, speciation of urine chemistry and published observations of population renal stone incidences to estimate changes in the rate of renal stone occurrence.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN36642 , Annual Meeting of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Research (ASGSR) 2016; Oct 26, 2016 - Oct 29, 2016; Cleveland, OH; United States
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