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  • 2015-2019  (123)
  • 1960-1964  (1)
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  • 1
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-12-31
    Description: This study addresses key processes in high-energy beach systems using an interdisciplinary approach. We assess spatial variations in subsurface pore water residence times, salinity, organic matter (OM) availability, and redox conditions and their effects on nutrient cycles as well as on microbial community patterns and microphytobenthos growth. At the study site on Spiekeroog Island, southern North Sea, beach hydrology is characterized by the classical zonation with an upper saline plume (USP), a saltwater wedge, and a freshwater discharge tube in between. Sediment and pore water samples were taken along a cross-shore transect from the dunes to the low water line reaching sediment depths down to 5 m below sediment surface. Spatial variations in pore water residence time, salinity, and organic matter availability lead to steep redox and nutrient gradients. Vertical and horizontal differences in the microbial community indicate the influence of these gradients and salinity on the community structure. Modeled seawater flux through the USP and freshwater flux through the tube are on average 2.8 and 0.75 m3 per day and meter of shoreline, respectively. Furthermore, ridge sediments at the lower beach discharge seawater at rates of 0.5 and 1.0 m3 per day and meter of shoreline towards the runnel and seaside, respectively. Applying seawater and freshwater fluxes and representative nutrient concentrations for the discharge zones, nutrient fluxes to adjacent nearshore waters are 117 mmol NH4+, 55 mmol PO43 − and 575 mmol Si(OH)4 per day and meter of shoreline. We propose that this nutrient efflux triggers growth of microphytobenthos on sediment surfaces of the discharge zone. A first comparison of nutrient discharge rates of the beach site with a nearby sandy backbarrier tidal flat margin indicates that the beach system might be of less importance in supplying recycled nutrients to nearshore waters than the backbarrier tidal flat area.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-26
    Description: Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agarreconstituted food), but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and compensatory responses of different seagrass species.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Hat die Einführung des Euro zu einer Verbesserung oder gar zu einer Verringerung des deutschen Wohlstands geführt? Daniel Stelter, Gründer des Diskussionsforums »Beyond the Obvious« und Unternehmensberater, kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass der Euro zu einer Verringerung des deutschen Wohlstands und der langfristigen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit geführt hat, und führt dafür zehn Argumente an. Seiner Meinung nach stellt sich für den »Durchschnittsdeutschen« die Geschichte so dar: Die Einführung des Euro führte zu einer langen Phase geringen Wachstums, hoher Arbeitslosigkeit und Lohnstagnation. Der Staat hat Ausgaben für Sozialleistungen und Infrastruktur und Investitionen gekürzt. Die Wirtschaft musste sich auf den Export konzentrieren, und die Ersparnisse wurden dazu genutzt, Lieferantenkredite zu gewähren. Jetzt, wo diese Kredite nicht bezahlt werden können, müssen wiederum die deutschen Sparer und Steuerzahler für den Schaden aufkommen. Ohne den Euro hätte es die Schuldenparty im Süden nicht gegeben, aber auch nicht die großen Exportüberschüsse. Dafür einen höheren Lebensstandard und bessere Infrastruktur in Deutschland. Nach Ansicht von Karlhans Sauernheimer, Universität Mainz, profitieren in Deutschland die Exportwirtschaft, die Eigentümer der exportierenden Unternehmen sowie die dort Beschäftigten von der Euroeinführung. Die Verlierer sind die importierenden Inländer, Konsumenten, Produzenten und Arbeitnehmer, die alle höhere Importpreise zahlen müssen als bei marktgerechten realen Wechselkursen. Eine zweite Umverteilung läuft von den Beschäftigten zu den Kapitalbesitzern. Die zu hohen Exporte/zu geringeren Investitionen kommen einem Kapitalexport gleich. Der Kapitalstock ist damit im Inland geringer, die Arbeitsnachfrage zu seiner Beschäftigung geht zurück. Die Reallöhne oder die Beschäftigung werden sinken, die Kapitalrenditen steigen. Eine dritte Umverteilung findet zwischen »dem Schuldner Staat und den Gläubigern Private Haushalte« statt. Der Bundesfinanzminister ist der
    Keywords: F34 ; H63 ; G01 ; ddc:330 ; Euro ; Deutschland ; Schuldenkrise ; Eurozone
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Marine macrophytes are the foundation of algal forests and seagrass meadows-some of the most productive and diverse coastal marine ecosystems on the planet. These ecosystems provide nursery grounds and food for fish and invertebrates, coastline protection from erosion, carbon sequestration, and nutrient fixation. For marine macrophytes, temperature is generally the most important range limiting factor, and ocean warming is considered the most severe threat among global climate change factors. Ocean warming induced losses of dominant macrophytes along their equatorial range edges, as well as range extensions into polar regions, are predicted and already documented. While adaptive evolution based on genetic change is considered too slow to keep pace with the increasing rate of anthropogenic environmental changes, rapid adaptation may come about through a set of non-genetic mechanisms involving the functional composition of the associated microbiome, as well as epigenetic modification of the genome and its regulatory effect on gene expression and the activity of transposable elements. While research in terrestrial plants demonstrates that the integration of non-genetic mechanisms provide a more holistic picture of a species' evolutionary potential, research in marine systems is lagging behind. Here, we aim to review the potential of marine macrophytes to acclimatize and adapt to major climate change effects via intraspecific variation at the genetic, epigenetic, and microbiome levels. All three levels create phenotypic variation that may either enhance fitness within individuals (plasticity) or be subject to selection and ultimately, adaptation. We review three of the most important phenotypic variations in a climate change context, including physiological variation, variation in propagation success, and in herbivore resistance. Integrating different levels of plasticity, and adaptability into ecological models will allow to obtain a more holistic understanding of trait variation and a realistic assessment of the future performance and distribution of marine macrophytes. Such multi-disciplinary approach that integrates various levels of intraspecific variation, and their effect on phenotypic and physiological variation, is of crucial importance for the effective management and conservation of seagrasses and macroalgae under climate change.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-10
    Description: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b03971
    Electronic ISSN: 2168-0485
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-10-24
    Description: Hierarchical control of enzymatic actuators using DNA-based switchable memories Nature Communications, Published online: 24 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01127-w Naturally evolved regulatory circuits have hierarchical layers of signal generation and processing. Here, the authors emulate these networks using feedback-controlled DNA circuits that convert upstream signaling to downstream enzyme activity in a switchable memories circuit.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-09-13
    Description: Author(s): Connor Sheere, Alexander van Engelen, P. Daniel Meerburg, and Joel Meyers Primordial gravitational waves leave a characteristic imprint on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in the form of B -mode polarization. Photons are also deflected by large scale gravitational waves which intervene between the source screen and our telescopes, resulting in curl-type gravitational ... [Phys. Rev. D 96, 063508] Published Tue Sep 12, 2017
    Keywords: Cosmology
    Print ISSN: 0556-2821
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-4918
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-10-18
    Description: Author(s): P. Daniel Meerburg, Joel Meyers, and Alexander van Engelen The observed dipole anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature is much larger than the fluctuations observed on smaller scales, and it is dominated by the kinematic contribution from the Doppler boosting of the monopole due to our motion with respect to the CMB rest frame. In ad... [Phys. Rev. D 96, 083519] Published Tue Oct 17, 2017
    Keywords: Cosmology
    Print ISSN: 0556-2821
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-4918
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-07-25
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.8b06146
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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