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  • 1990-1994  (1)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In many real-world pollution chemical reaction problems, the rate of reaction problems, the rate of reaction may be greatly affected by unmixedness. An approximate closure scheme for a chemical kinetic submodel which conforms to the principles of invariant modeling and which accounts for the effects of inhomogeneous mixing over a wide range of conditions has been developed. This submodel has been coupled successfully with invariant turbulence and diffusion models, permitting calculation of two-dimensional diffusion of two reacting (isothermally) chemical species. The initial calculations indicate the ozone reactions in the wake of stratospheric aircraft will be substantially affected by the rate of diffusion of ozone into the wake, and in the early wake, by unmixedness.
    Keywords: CHEMISTRY
    Type: REPT-193 , NASA-CR-2295
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0941-1216
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Metal Complex Catalysts with Phosphonic Ester Phosphine Ligands. I. Carbonylation of Methanol by Phosphonic Ester Phosphine Rhodium ComplexesThe treatment of technically available 2-(chloroethyl)phosphonic acid dimethylester (1) with diphenylphosphine and potassium-tert.-butylate affords 2-(diphenylphosphino)ethylphosphonic acid dimethylester (2a) in a simple way. 2a can be used as a hemilabil complex ligand (by phosphine and phosphoryl group.) Rhodium complexes of the type (MeO)2P(O)CH2CH2P(Ph)2RhL3 (3) were obtained from 2a and exhibit excellent catalytic properties in the liquid-phase carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid. Studies on other chelat-ligands did not confirm the exceptional increase of the activity by bisphosphinemonoxyd-ligands and the inhibition of the title reaction by bisphosphine-ligands already published.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: α, β-Dibromierte Aldehyde reagieren mit Phosphorigsäuretrialkylestern erwartungsgemäß bereits bei Raumtemperatur in einer Perkow-Reaktion zu den entsprechenden Dialkyl-vinyl-phosphorsäureestern. Die Umsetzung der aus Acrylestern durch Bromierung in Gegenwart von LiCl oder KBr in hohen Ausbeuten darstellbaren α,β-Dibromcarbonsäureester mit 2 Mol Phosphorigsäureestern führt in einer Ausweichreaktion weder zum Phosphonsäureester noch zum Phosphorsäurevinylester, sondern unter Enthalogenierung zu Acrylester und hauptsächlich Unterphosphorsäuretetraäthylester. Für den Reaktionsverlauf wird ein Mechanismus diskutiert, bei dem das gleiche Zwischenprodukt sowohl bei dieser als auch bei der Perkow- und der Arbusow-Reaktion durchlaufen wird.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Chlormethoxyessigsäure-methylester 1 reagiert wie mit Aromaten auch mit aromatischen Heterocyclen, DVB-vernetztem Polystyrol bzw. geeignet substituierten Phenolen unter Bildung der entsprechenden analogen Derivate von O-Methylmandelsäure- oder Diarylessigsäureester.  -  Phenolester von O-Methylmandelsäuren sind nur aus den entsprechenden Säurechloriden darstellbar. Bei Versuchen zur Umesterung der Methylester mit Phenolen erhält man unter Kondensation Lactone der o-Hydroxyphenylessigsäure. - Aus 1,2,2,2-Tetrachloräthyl-methyläther 11 und Aromaten sind u.a. 2′,2′,2′-Trichlor-1′-methoxyäthylbenzole 12 zugänglich, die entgegen Angaben der Literatur nicht zu den erwarteten O-Methylmandelsäurederivaten hydrolysierbar sind. Mit K-tert.-Butylat erhält man aus 12a 2′,2′-Dichlor-1′-methoxystyrol, dessen Hydrolyse zu 2′,2′-Dichloracetophenon führt.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-07-27
    Description: Increasing morbidity and mortality from Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) present an enormous challenge to healthcare systems. Clostridium difficile express type IV pili (T4P), but their function remains unclear. Many chronic and recurrent bacterial infections result from biofilms, surface-associated bacterial communities embedded in an extracellular matrix. CDI may be biofilm mediated; T4P are important for biofilm formation in a number of organisms. We evaluate the role of T4P in C. difficile biofilm formation using RNA sequencing, mutagenesis and complementation of the gene encoding the major pilin pilA1 , and microscopy. RNA sequencing demonstrates that, in comparison to other growth phenotypes, C. difficile growing in a biofilm has a distinct RNA expression profile, with significant differences in T4P gene expression. Microscopy of T4P-expressing and T4P-deficient strains suggests that T4P play an important role in early biofilm formation. A non-piliated pilA1 mutant forms an initial biofilm of significantly reduced mass and thickness in comparison to the wild type. Complementation of the pilA1 mutant strain leads to formation of a biofilm which resembles the wild-type biofilm. These findings suggest that T4P play an important role in early biofilm formation. Novel strategies for confronting biofilm infections are emerging; our data suggest that similar strategies should be investigated in CDI.
    Print ISSN: 0928-8244
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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