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  • 2015-2019  (80)
  • 1975-1979  (5)
  • 1960-1964
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-01-26
    Description: Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agarreconstituted food), but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and compensatory responses of different seagrass species.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-12-31
    Description: This study addresses key processes in high-energy beach systems using an interdisciplinary approach. We assess spatial variations in subsurface pore water residence times, salinity, organic matter (OM) availability, and redox conditions and their effects on nutrient cycles as well as on microbial community patterns and microphytobenthos growth. At the study site on Spiekeroog Island, southern North Sea, beach hydrology is characterized by the classical zonation with an upper saline plume (USP), a saltwater wedge, and a freshwater discharge tube in between. Sediment and pore water samples were taken along a cross-shore transect from the dunes to the low water line reaching sediment depths down to 5 m below sediment surface. Spatial variations in pore water residence time, salinity, and organic matter availability lead to steep redox and nutrient gradients. Vertical and horizontal differences in the microbial community indicate the influence of these gradients and salinity on the community structure. Modeled seawater flux through the USP and freshwater flux through the tube are on average 2.8 and 0.75 m3 per day and meter of shoreline, respectively. Furthermore, ridge sediments at the lower beach discharge seawater at rates of 0.5 and 1.0 m3 per day and meter of shoreline towards the runnel and seaside, respectively. Applying seawater and freshwater fluxes and representative nutrient concentrations for the discharge zones, nutrient fluxes to adjacent nearshore waters are 117 mmol NH4+, 55 mmol PO43 − and 575 mmol Si(OH)4 per day and meter of shoreline. We propose that this nutrient efflux triggers growth of microphytobenthos on sediment surfaces of the discharge zone. A first comparison of nutrient discharge rates of the beach site with a nearby sandy backbarrier tidal flat margin indicates that the beach system might be of less importance in supplying recycled nutrients to nearshore waters than the backbarrier tidal flat area.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Hat die Einführung des Euro zu einer Verbesserung oder gar zu einer Verringerung des deutschen Wohlstands geführt? Daniel Stelter, Gründer des Diskussionsforums »Beyond the Obvious« und Unternehmensberater, kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass der Euro zu einer Verringerung des deutschen Wohlstands und der langfristigen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit geführt hat, und führt dafür zehn Argumente an. Seiner Meinung nach stellt sich für den »Durchschnittsdeutschen« die Geschichte so dar: Die Einführung des Euro führte zu einer langen Phase geringen Wachstums, hoher Arbeitslosigkeit und Lohnstagnation. Der Staat hat Ausgaben für Sozialleistungen und Infrastruktur und Investitionen gekürzt. Die Wirtschaft musste sich auf den Export konzentrieren, und die Ersparnisse wurden dazu genutzt, Lieferantenkredite zu gewähren. Jetzt, wo diese Kredite nicht bezahlt werden können, müssen wiederum die deutschen Sparer und Steuerzahler für den Schaden aufkommen. Ohne den Euro hätte es die Schuldenparty im Süden nicht gegeben, aber auch nicht die großen Exportüberschüsse. Dafür einen höheren Lebensstandard und bessere Infrastruktur in Deutschland. Nach Ansicht von Karlhans Sauernheimer, Universität Mainz, profitieren in Deutschland die Exportwirtschaft, die Eigentümer der exportierenden Unternehmen sowie die dort Beschäftigten von der Euroeinführung. Die Verlierer sind die importierenden Inländer, Konsumenten, Produzenten und Arbeitnehmer, die alle höhere Importpreise zahlen müssen als bei marktgerechten realen Wechselkursen. Eine zweite Umverteilung läuft von den Beschäftigten zu den Kapitalbesitzern. Die zu hohen Exporte/zu geringeren Investitionen kommen einem Kapitalexport gleich. Der Kapitalstock ist damit im Inland geringer, die Arbeitsnachfrage zu seiner Beschäftigung geht zurück. Die Reallöhne oder die Beschäftigung werden sinken, die Kapitalrenditen steigen. Eine dritte Umverteilung findet zwischen »dem Schuldner Staat und den Gläubigern Private Haushalte« statt. Der Bundesfinanzminister ist der
    Keywords: F34 ; H63 ; G01 ; ddc:330 ; Euro ; Deutschland ; Schuldenkrise ; Eurozone
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 35 (1979), S. 1853-1857 
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Hydrates of Barium Chloride. X-ray, Thermoanalytical, Raman, and I.R. DataIn the system BaCl2—H2O the hydrates BaCl2 · 2 H2O, BaCl2 · 1 H2O, BaCl2 · 1/2 H2O, and BaCl2 · uH2O were obtained. X-ray powder data, i.r. and Raman spectra, as well as thermoanalytical measurements (TG, DTA) are reported. BaCl2 · 1 H2O and BaCl2 · 1/2 H2O, which are both isotype with the corresponding hydrates of SrCl2, were prepared by dehydration of BaCl2 · 2 H2O or by back hydration of anhydrous BaCl2 with the calculated amounts of water. BaCl2 · uH2O (u ≍ 1) is formed as the primary product by the reaction of anhydrous BaCl2 with water vapour at room temperature. Preparation methods of salt hydrates by controlled back hydration of the anhydrous salts are reported.
    Notes: Im System BaCl2—H2O wurden folgende Hydrate erhalten: BaCl2 · 2 H2O, BaCl2 · 1 H2O, BaCl2 · 1/2 H2O und BaCl2 · uH2O. Röntgenpulverdaten, IR- und Raman-Spektren sowie das Ergebnis thermoanalytischer Messungen (TG, DTA) werden mitgeteilt. BaCl2 · 1 H2O und BaCl2 · 1/2 H2O, die mit den entsprechenden Hydraten des SrCl2 isotyp sind, werden beim Entwässern von BaCl2 · 2 H2O oder durch Umsetzen von wasserfreiem BaCl2 mit der berechneten Menge Wasser erhalten. BaCl2 · uH2O (u ≍ 1) bildet sich als primäres Reaktionsprodukt bei der Umsetzung von wasserfreiem BaCl2 mit Wasserdampf bei Raumtemperatur. Die Darstellung phasenreiner niederer Salzhydrate durch kontrollierte Rückbewässerung der wasserfreien Salze wird beschrieben.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Contributions to the Chemistry of Sulfur. 115. Crystal and Molecular Structure of BenzopentathiepineThe structure of benzopentathiepine has been determined from three-dimensional single-crystal X-ray data. The crystal are monoclinic, space group P21/c, with 4 molecules in the unit cell of dimensions a = 6.942(4) Å, b = 10.223(10) Å, c = 13.015(8) Å, β = 102,15(10)°. The conformation of the seven-membered ring is the chair form. Details of the conformation are discussed. Bond distances, bond angles, and dihedral angles are compared with those in other molecules, which have similar structure.
    Notes: Die Struktur von Benzopentathiepin wurde aus Einkristalldaten röntgenographisch bestimmt. Die Kristalle sind monoklin, Raumgruppe P21/c, mit 4 Molekeln in der Elementarzelle. Die Gitterkonstanten sind: a = 6,942(4) Å, b = 10,223(10) Å, c = 13,015(8) Å, β = 102,15(10)°. Der siebengliedrige Ring liegt in der Sesselkonformation vor. Einzelheiten der Konformation werden diskutiert. Bindungslängen und -winkel sowie die Diederwinkel werden mit denen anderer Molekeln ähnlicher Struktur verglichen.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    De economist 22 (1873), S. 321-338 
    ISSN: 1572-9982
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    De economist 22 (1873), S. 459-487 
    ISSN: 1572-9982
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-09-07
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report a measurement of the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing from two seasons of Atacama Cosmology Telescope polarimeter (ACTPol) CMB data. The CMB lensing power spectrum is extracted from both temperature and polarization data using quadratic estimators. We obtain results that are consistent with the expectation from the best-fit Planck CDM model over a range of multipoles L 80-2100, with an amplitude of lensing A(sub lens) = 1.06 +/- 0.15 stat +/- 0.06 sys relative to Planck. Our measurement of the CMB lensing power spectrum gives sigma 8 omega m(sup 0.25) = 0.643 +/- 0.054; including baryon acoustic oscillation scale data, we constrain the amplitude of density fluctuations to be sigma 8 = 0.831 +/- 0.053. We also update constraints on the neutrino mass sum. We verify our lensing measurement with a number of null tests and systematic checks, finding no evidence of significant systematic errors. This measurement relies on a small fraction of the ACTPol data already taken; more precise lensing results can therefore be expected from the full ACTPol data set.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN44620 , Physical Review D (ISSN 1550-7998) (e-ISSN 1089-4918); 95; 12; 123529
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