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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2673
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents a large anisotropic damage theory of continuum damage mechanics. It is developed via a new hypothesis of incremental complementary elastic energy equivalence. This hypothesis is more versatile and accurate if compared to the original hypothesis of total complementary energy equivalence. To model the large damage, we assumed that it occurs as a series of incremental small damage. An expression for the damage effect tensor M(D) for large damage is derived. It is shown that when the damage is small, that is, D i≪1, the proposed large damage theory reduces to the small damage model of Chow and Wang [1]. To demonstrate this large damage theory, it is applied to model the following cases: (a) uniaxial tension, (b) pure torsion and (c) elastic perfectly-plastic material behavior. In all three cases, the results clearly show that when the damage is small, Chow and Wang's model is recovered. However, for large damage, there are significant differences in predictions. Since this large damage theory is formulated on the basis of the incremental complementary energy, it is applicable to a wider range of problems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A general treatment is presented for modelling the dynamics of a flexible multibody system, using a lumped mass finite element approach. The system topology considered here is defined as an arbitrary combination of both rigid and flexible bodies, connected together by joints that permit translation and compliance, in a general tree configuration. An extension to handle closed loop kinematic chains is also indicated. Kane's theory of generalized speeds, which is based on the Lagrange-D'Alembert principle, is used to derive the equations of motion, and this results in a very efficient computer oriented methodology for solving the dynamics of such large mechanical systems. To facilitate numerical computations, these dynamical equations are transformed into a system of first-order differential equations for an explicit formulation of the problem. The accuracy of the proposed formulation is assessed via three examples with known solutions. The results obtained indicate the method is accurate, efficient and versatile for the analysis of a general, flexible multibody system.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper presents a new method of writing finite element programs using the programming approach known as object oriented programming (OOP). More specifically, the C++ language is used to illustrate the key OOP concepts. In addition to the OOP finite element examples, a detailed discussion of OOP techniques in the creation of a generalized matrix library is presented. The C++ language is used in this paper because it is more suited to numerical programs than a pure OOP language such as Smalltalk. The efficiency, flexibility and maintainability of the C++ program are shown to be superior to a comparable version written in a non-OOP language, such as FORTRAN. The matrix library contains a number of matrix objects that are useful for specific types of matrix related problems. Different sparse storage schemes are implemented for each different type of matrix. A large number of functions are provided for each matrix type in order to implement many common matrix operations. In applications, the OOP paradigm allows the functions to be used in a very simple way that is common to all the matrix types. The sample finite element code included in this paper is primarily intended to illustrate the key concepts of OOP style. This paper explains how to set up a finite element hierarchy, material hierarchy and how to integrate this with the matrix hierarchy (library). Thus, a completely object oriented finite element program can be written.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-08-16
    Description: Article Kinematic sensors are required in many industrial applications, but the current sensor designs rely on power input from external sources. Here, Jing et al. harness the micro-meso scale ambient energy via a triboelectric generator to self-power sensors for one- and two-dimensional motion vector sensing. Nature Communications doi: 10.1038/ncomms9031 Authors: Qingshen Jing, Yannan Xie, Guang Zhu, Ray P. S. Han, Zhong Lin Wang
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-06-18
    Description: PSR J2032+4127 is a -ray and radio-emitting pulsar which has been regarded as a young luminous isolated neutron star. However, its recent spin-down rate has extraordinarily increased by a factor of 2. We present evidence that this is due to its motion as a member of a highly-eccentric binary system with an ~15–M Be star, MT91 213. Timing observations show that, not only are the positions of the two stars coincident within 0.4 arcsec, but timing models of binary motion of the pulsar fit the data much better than a model of a young isolated pulsar. MT91 213, and hence the pulsar, lie in the Cyg OB2 stellar association, which is at a distance of only 1.4–1.7 kpc. The pulsar is currently on the near side of, and accelerating towards, the Be star, with an orbital period of 20–30 yr. The next periastron is well constrained to occur in early 2018, providing an opportunity to observe enhanced high-energy emission as seen in other Be-star binary systems.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We search for an isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background (GWB) in the newly released 11 year data set from the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav). While we find no evidence for a GWB, we place constraints on a population of inspiraling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries, a network of decaying cosmic strings, and a primordial GWB. For the first time, we find that the GWB constraints are sensitive to the solar system ephemeris (SSE) model used and that SSE errors can mimic a GWB signal. We developed an approach that bridges systematic SSE differences, producing the first pulsar-timing array (PTA) constraints that are robust against SSE errors. We thus place a 95% upper limit on the GW-strain amplitude of A (sub GWB) 〈 1.45 10 (exp -15) at a frequency of f=1 yr(exp -1) for a fiducial f (exp -2/3) power-law spectrum and with interpulsar correlations modeled. This is a factor of approximately 2 improvement over the NANOGrav nine-year limit calculated using the same procedure. Previous PTA upper limits on the GWB (as well as their astrophysical and cosmological interpretations) will need revision in light of SSE systematic errors. We use our constraints to characterize the combined influence on the GWB of the stellar mass density in galactic cores, the eccentricity of SMBH binaries, and SMBH-galactic-bulge scaling relationships. We constrain the cosmic-string tension using recent simulations, yielding an SSE-marginalized 95% upper limit of G (sub mu) 〈 5.3 10(exp -11) - a factor of approximately 2 better than the published NANOGrav nine-year constraints. Our SSE-marginalized 95% upper limit on the energy density of a primordial GWB (for a radiation-dominated post-inflation universe) is omega (sub GWB)(f) h (exp 2) 〈 3.4 10 (exp -10).
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN59128 , Astrophysical Journal (ISSN 0004-637X) (e-ISSN 1538-4357); 859; 1; 47
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We describe a probe-class mission concept that provides an unprecedented view of the X-ray sky, performing timing and 0.2-30 keV spectroscopy over timescales from microseconds to years. The Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays (STROBE-X) comprises three primary instruments. The first uses an array of lightweight optics (3-m focal length) that concentrate incident photons onto solid state detectors with CCD-level (85-130 eV) energy resolution, 100 ns time resolution, and low background rates to cover the 0.2-12 keV band. This technology is scaled up from NICER, with enhanced optics to take advantage of the longer focal length of STROBE-X. The second uses large-area collimated silicon drift detectors, developed for ESA's LOFT, to cover the 2-30 keV band. These two instruments each provide an order of magnitude improvement in effective area compared with its predecessor (NICER and RXTE, respectively). Finally, a sensitive sky monitor triggers pointed observations, provides high duty cycle, high time resolution, high spectral resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with approx. 20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE ASM, and enables multi-wavelength and multi-messenger studies on a continuous, rather than scanning basis.For the first time, the broad coverage provides simultaneous study of thermal components, non-thermal components, iron lines, and reflection features from a single platform for accreting black holes at all scales. The enormous collecting area allows detailed studies of the dense matter equation of state using both thermal emission from rotation-powered pulsars and harder emission from X-ray burst oscillations. The combination of the wide-field monitor and the sensitive pointed instruments enables observations of potential electromagnetic counterparts to LIGO and neutrino events. Additional extragalactic science, such as high quality spectroscopy of clusters of galaxies and unprecedented timing investigations of active galactic nuclei, is also obtained.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN46013 , AAS HEAD Divisional Meeting; Aug 20, 2017 - Aug 24, 2017; Sun Valley, ID; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: LOFT-P is a mission concept for a NASA Astrophysics Probe-Class (less than $1B) X-ray timing mission, based on the LOFT M-class concept originally proposed to ESA's M3 and M4 calls. LOFT-P requires very large collecting area, high time resolution, good spectral resolution, broadband spectral coverage (2-30 keV), highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to detect and respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. Many of LOFTP's targets are bright, rapidly varying sources, so these measurements are synergistic to imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy instruments, addressing much smaller distance scales than are possible without very long baseline X-ray interferometry, and using complementary techniques to address the geometry and dynamics of emission regions. LOFT-P was presented as an example mission to the head of NASA's Astrophysics Division, to demonstrate the strong community support for creation of a probe-class, for missions costing between $500M and $1B. We submitted a white paper4 in response to NASA PhysPAG's call for white papers: Probe-class Mission Concepts, describing LOFT-P science and a simple extrapolation from the ESA study costs. The next step for probe-class missions will be input into the NASA Astrophysics Decadal Survey to encourage the creation of a probe-class opportunity. We report on a 2016 study by MSFC's Advanced Concepts Office of LOFT-P, a US-led probe-class LOFT concept.
    Keywords: Astronomy; Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN33419 , SPIE Space Telescopes + Instrumentation; Jun 26, 2016 - Jul 01, 2016; Edinburgh, Scotland; United Kingdom
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We describe a probe-class mission concept that provides an unprecedented view of the X-ray sky, performing timing and 0.2-30 keV spectroscopy over timescales from microseconds to years. The Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays (STROBE-X) comprises three primary instruments. The first uses an array of lightweight optics (3-m focal length) that concentrate incident photons onto solid state detectors with CCD-level (85-130 eV) energy resolution, 100 ns time resolution, and low background rates to cover the 0.2-12 keV band. This technology is scaled up from NICER [1], with enhanced optics to take advantage of the longer focal length of STROBE-X. The second uses large-area collimated silicon drift detectors, developed for ESA's LOFT [2], to cover the 2-30 keV band. These two instruments each provide an order of magnitude improvement in effective area compared with its predecessor (NICER and RXTE, respectively). Finally, a sensitive sky monitor triggers pointed observations, provides high duty cycle, high time resolution, high spectral resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with approx. 20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE ASM, and enables multi-wavelength and multi-messenger studies on a continuous, rather than scanning basis. For the first time, the broad coverage provides simultaneous study of thermal components, non-thermal components, iron lines, and reflection features from a single platform for accreting black holes at all scales. The enormous collecting area allows detailed studies of the dense matter equation of state using both thermal emission from rotation-powered pulsars and harder emission from X-ray burst oscillations. The combination of the wide-field monitor and the sensitive pointed instruments enables observations of potential electromagnetic counterparts to LIGO and neutrino events. Additional extragalactic science, such as high quality spectroscopy of clusters of galaxies and unprecedented timing investigations of active galactic nuclei, is also obtained
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN50652 , American Astronomical Society (AAS) Meeting; Jan 08, 2018 - Jan 12, 2018; National Harbor, MD; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) is a mission concept which was proposed to ESA as M3 and M4 candidate in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument and the uniquely large field of view of its wide field monitor, LOFT will be able to study the behaviour of matter in extreme conditions such as the strong gravitational field in the innermost regions close to black holes and neutron stars and the supra-nuclear densities in the interiors of neutron stars. The science payload is based on a Large Area Detector (LAD, is greater than 8m2 effective area, 2-30 keV, 240 eV spectral resolution, 1 degree collimated field of view) and a Wide Field Monitor (WFM, 2-50 keV, 4 steradian field of view, 1 arcmin source location accuracy, 300 eV spectral resolution). The WFM is equipped with an on-board system for bright events (e.g., GRB) localization. The trigger time and position of these events are broadcast to the ground within 30 s from discovery. In this paper we present the current technical and programmatic status of the mission.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN44111 , SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; Jun 26, 2016 - Jul 01, 2016; Edinburgh, Scotland; United Kingdom|Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray; 9905; 99051R
    Format: text
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