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  • 2015-2019  (52)
  • 1995-1999  (5)
  • 1910-1914  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Androgenesis ; Gynogenesis ; Tilapia Gene bank ; Chromosome manipulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Androgenesis is a potentially valuable technique for recovering fish from gene banks composed of cryopreserved sperm, developing inbred lines, and analyzing patterns of inheritance. The procedure for producing diploid organisms whose nuclear DNA is wholly of paternal origin is dependent on: (1) the denucleation of “host” eggs, and (2) the inhibition of the first mitotic division in order to double the haploid sperm chromosome complement following fertilization of host eggs. Denucleation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) eggs was carried out using UV irradiation. Treatment durations of 5–8 min (total dose of 450–720 J/m2) produced acceptable yields of viable denucleated eggs [22.9±1.6% (±SE) of controls] as estimated by the survival of haploid androgenetic tilapia to 48 h post-fertilization. Successful mitotic inhibition was accomplished using a heat-shock of 42.5 °C for 3–4 min, applied at 2.5-min intervals from 22.5 to 30 min post-fertilization (mpf). The mean survival of androgenetic diploid fish to yolk-sac absorption for treatment groups varied from 0.4% to 5.3%, relative to the controls. Differences in the suceptibility of eggs from different females to UV irradiation were a significant factor in the overall yield of androgenetic diploids. Paternal effects did not significantly influence the androgenetic yield, suggesting that individual males would not be selected against. For comparative purposes mitotic gynogenetic “mitogyne” diploids were produced from UV-irradiated sperm. Mean survival to yolk-sac absorption varied from 0.5% to 10.64%, relative to controls. Similar optima for androgenetic and gynogenetic induction were found in the period 25–27.5 mpf (minutes post-fertilization). Induction treatments would appear to be operating on the same developmental events in both these techniques, and the results suggest that the UV irradiations used do relatively little damage to the eggs beyond nuclear inactivation. The results indicate that the production of androgenetic O. niloticus is possible on a consistent basis and that the application of this technique may be useful in quantitative and conservation genetics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0863-1778
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0863-1778
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Aus den Versuchen ergibt sich, daß Cuprohydrid bei der Reaktion zwischen Kupfersulfat und unterphosphoriger Säure entsteht, daß aber die Reinheit des Produktes von begrenzten Versuchsbedingungen, besonders von Temperatur und Zeit abhängt. Die Versuche bei gewöhnlicher Temperatur zeigen, daß nach mehrstündigem Stehen das Produkt Hydrid und Oxyd enthält, und auf die Koexistenz dieser beiden Stoffe ist die Explosionsfähigkeit der trockenen Substanz bei Berührung mit Luft zurückzuführen.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Aquaculture research 26 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2109
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Key words Allium sativum ; Benzyladenine ; Picloram ; Thidiazuron ; 2 ; 4-D ; 2iP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A long-term regeneration system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) clones of diverse origin was developed. Callus was initiated on a modified Gamborg's B-5 medium supplemented with 4.5 μM 2,4-D and maintained on the same basal medium with 4.7 μM picloram+0.49 μM 2iP. Regeneration potential of callus after 5, 12 and 16 months on maintenance medium was measured using several plant growth regulator treatments. The 1.4 μM picloram+13.3 μM BA treatment stimulated the highest rate of shoot production. Regeneration rate decreased as callus age increased, but healthy plantlets from callus cultures up to 16-months-old were produced for all clones. Regeneration of long-term garlic callus cultures could be useful for clonal propagation and transformation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Key words Garlic ; Allium sativum L. ; Root segments ; Regeneration ; Picloram
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Root segments from shoot tip-derived plantlets of the garlic (Allium sativum L.) clones `DDR7099', `PI383819', and `Piacenza' were utilized as an explant source for continuous, friable callus production. The best callus production occurred on root segments initially cultured on medium with 4,5 μm 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for 8 weeks, then subcultured to medium with 4.7 μm 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) +0.49 μm 6-(γ-γ-dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP) for 8 weeks. Embryogenic, friable callus was transferred to liquid medium for 1 month and then transferred to solid regeneration medium for 14 weeks. The best shoot and root regeneration (85.3% and 35.8%, respectively) occurred on 4-month-old calli from the clone `DDR7099'. In all clones, regeneration rate decreased as callus age increased.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: To validate and further improve the Integrated Medical Model (IMM), medical event data were obtained from 32 ISS and 122 STS person-missions. Using the crew characteristics from these observed missions, IMM v4.0 was used to forecast medical events and medical resource utilization. The IMM medical condition incidence values were compared to the actual observed medical event incidence values, and the IMM forecasted medical resource utilization was compared to actual observed medical resource utilization. Qualitative comparisons of these parameters were conducted for both the ISS and STS programs. The results of these analyses will provide validation of IMM v4.0 and reveal areas of the model requiring adjustments to improve the overall accuracy of IMM outputs. This validation effort should result in enhanced credibility of the IMM and improved confidence in the use of IMM as a decision support tool for human space flight.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN29847 , 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators'' Workshop (HRP IWS 2016); 8-11 Feb. 2016; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Space flight induces a marked cephalad (headward) redistribution of blood and interstitial fluid potentially resulting in a loss of venous tone and reduction in heart muscle efficiency upon introduction into the microgravity environment. Using various types of computational models, we are investigating how this fluid redistribution may induce intracranial pressure changes, relevant to reported reductions in astronaut visual acuity, part of the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Methods: We utilize a lumped parameter cardiovascular system (CVS) model, augmented by compartments comprising the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) space, as the primary tool to describe how microgravity, and the associated lack of hydrostatic gradient, impacts fluid redistribution. Models of ocular fluid pressures and biomechanics then accept the output of the above model as boundary condition input to allow more detailed, local analysis (see IWS Abstract by Ethier et al.). Recently, we enhanced the capabilities our previously reported CVS model through the implementation of robust autoregulatory mechanisms and a more fundamental approach to the implementation of hydrostatic mechanisms. Modifying the approach of Blanco et al., we implemented auto-regulation in a quasi-static manner, as an averaged effect across the span of one heartbeat. This approach reduced the higher frequency perturbations from the regulatory mechanism and was intended to allow longer simulation times (days) than models that implement within-beat regulatory mechanisms (minutes). A more fundamental approach to hydrostatics was implemented by a quasi-1D approach, in which compartment descriptions include compartment length, orientation and relative position, allowed for modeling of body orientation, relative body positioning and, in the future, alternative gravity environments. At this time the inclusion of hydrostatic mechanisms supplies additional capabilities to train and validate the CVS model with terrestrial data. Results and Conclusions: With the implementation of auto-regulation and hydrostatic modeling capabilities, the model performs as expected in the maintaining the CA (Central Artery) compartment pressure when simulating orientations ranging from supine to standing. The model appears to generally overpredict heart rate and thus cardiac output, possibly indicating sensitivity to the nominal heart rate, which is used as an initial set point of the regulation mechanisms. Despite this sensitivity, the model performs consistently for many hours of simulation time, indicating the success of our quasi-static implementation approach.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN38845 , NASA Human Research Program Investigators Workshop (HRP IWS 2017); 23-26 Jan. 2017; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The earliest manifestations of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome become evident after months of spaceflight and include a variety of ophthalmic changes, including posterior globe flattening and distension of the optic nerve sheath. Prevailing evidence links the occurrence of VIIP to the cephalic fluid shift induced by microgravity and the subsequent pressure changes around the optic nerve and eye. Deducing the etiology of VIIP is challenging due to the wide range of physiological parameters that may be influenced by spaceflight and are required to address a realistic spectrum of physiological responses. Here, we report on the application of an efficient approach to interrogating physiological parameter space through computational modeling. Specifically, we assess the influence of uncertainty in input parameters for two models of VIIP syndrome: a lumped-parameter model (LPM) of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems, and a finite-element model (FEM) of the posterior eye, optic nerve head (ONH) and optic nerve sheath. Methods: To investigate the parameter space in each model, we employed Latin hypercube sampling partial rank correlation coefficient (LHSPRCC) strategies. LHS techniques outperform Monte Carlo approaches by enforcing efficient sampling across the entire range of all parameters. The PRCC method estimates the sensitivity of model outputs to these parameters while adjusting for the linear effects of all other inputs. The LPM analysis addressed uncertainties in 42 physiological parameters, such as initial compartmental volume and nominal compartment percentage of total cardiac output in the supine state, while the FEM evaluated the effects on biomechanical strain from uncertainties in 23 material and pressure parameters for the ocular anatomy. Results and Conclusion: The LPM analysis identified several key factors including high sensitivity to the initial fluid distribution. The FEM study found that intraocular pressure and intracranial pressure had dominant impact on the peak strains in the ONH and retro-laminar optic nerve, respectively; optic nerve and lamina cribrosa stiffness were also important. This investigation illustrates the ability of LHSPRCC to identify the most influential physiological parameters, which must therefore be well-characterized to produce the most accurate numerical results.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN36570 , Annual Meeting of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Research; 26-29 Oct. 2016; Cleveland, OH; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Space flight impacts human physiology in many ways, the most immediate being the marked cephalad (headward) shift of fluid upon introduction into the microgravity environment. This physiological response to microgravity points to the redistribution of blood and interstitial fluid as a major factor in the loss of venous tone and reduction in heart muscle efficiency which impact astronaut performance. In addition, researchers have hypothesized that a reduction in astronaut visual acuity, part of the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, is associated with this redistribution of fluid. VIIP arises within several months of beginning space flight and includes a variety of ophthalmic changes including posterior globe flattening, distension of the optic nerve sheath, and kinking of the optic nerve. We utilize a suite of lumped parameter models to simulate microgravity-induced fluid redistribution in the cardiovascular, central nervous and ocular systems to provide initial and boundary data to a 3D finite element simulation of ocular biomechanics in VIIP. Specifically, the lumped parameter cardiovascular model acts as the primary means of establishing how microgravity, and the associated lack of hydrostatic gradient, impacts fluid redistribution. The cardiovascular model consists of 16 compartments, including three cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments, three cranial blood compartments, and 10 thoracic and lower limb blood compartments. To assess the models capability to address variations in physiological parameters, we completed a formal uncertainty and sensitivity analysis that evaluated the relative importance of 42 input parameters required in the model on relative compartment flows and compartment pressures. Utilizing the model in a pulsatile flow configuration, the sensitivity analysis identified the ten parameters that most influenced each compartment pressure. Generally, each compartment responded appropriately to parameter variations associated with itself and adjacent compartments. However, several unexpected interactions between components, such as between the choroid plexus and the lower capillaries, were found, and are due to simplifications in the formulation of the model. The analysis illustrates that highly influential parameters and those that have unique influences within the model formulation must be tightly controlled for successful model application.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN29818 , 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators'' Workshop (HRP IWS 2016); 8-11 Feb. 2016; Galveston, TX; United States
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