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  • 2020-2022  (2)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2021-11-03
    Description: Due to challenges involved in mapping the seafloor at high‐resolution (e.g., 〈 2 m), data are lacking to understand processes that control the evolution of submarine normal fault scarps, which cover large parts of the global seafloor. Here, we use data from autonomous deep‐sea vehicles to quantify local erosion and deposition associated with a pronounced tectonic surface scarp formed by slip on the submarine Roseau normal fault (Lesser Antilles). We use high‐resolution video imagery, photomosaics, and high‐resolution bathymetry data (0.1–10 m/pixel) to identify active erosional features on the scarp including channels, steep gullies, small scarps, and debris cones. We compare volumes of erosion and deposition and find that under certain depositional conditions, debris cones effectively record the erosion signal of mass wasting from the footwall with a ratio of hanging wall deposition to footwall erosion of 0.80. We use eroded volumes to estimate earthquake‐induced landslide erosion rates for the Roseau fault of 14–46 m Ma‐1. Assuming mass wasting of the Roseau fault scarp is mostly coseismic, the erosion rates for the Roseau fault imply that submarine earthquake induced mass‐wasting can occur at similar rates to various terrestrial lithological and tectonic settings. We present a process‐based model of submarine scarp degradation via retrogressive erosion in basement lithology where scarps have a gravitational stability threshold height of 20–40 m and a long‐term average slope of 30–40°. More generally, the results presented here may be applicable to develop models of submarine landscape evolution based on degradation of normal fault scarps on the seafloor.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2021-01-09
    Description: Compilation of data used to support the article: "Co-location of the downdip end of seismic coupling and the continental shelf break" (Malatesta et al., 2020). Along subduction margins, the morphology of the near shore domain records the combined action of erosion from ocean waves and permanent tectonic deformation from the convergence of plates. We observe that at subduction margins around the globe, the edge of continental shelves tends to be located above the downdip end of seismic coupling on the megathrust. Coastlines lie farther landward at variable distances. This observation stems from a compilation of well-resolved coseismic and interseismic coupling datasets. The permanent interseismic uplift component of the total tectonic deformation can explain the localization of the shelf break. It contributes a short wave-length gradient in vertical deformation on top of the structural and isostatic deformation of the margin. This places a hinge line between seaward subsidence and landward uplift above the downdip end of high coupling. Landward of the hinge line, rocks are uplifted in the domain of wave-base erosion and a shelf is maintained by the competition of rock uplift and wave erosion. wave erosion then sets the coastline back from the tectonically meaningful shelf break. We combine a wave erosion model with an elastic deformation model to illustrate how the downdip end of high coupling pins the location of the shelf break. In areas where the shelf is wide, onshore geodetic constraints on seismic coupling is limited and could be advantageously complemented by considering the location of the shelf break. Subduction margin morphology integrates hundreds of seismic cycles and could inform seismic coupling stability through time.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper
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