Kinematic laser scanning is widely used for the fast and accurate acquisition of road corridors. In this context, road monitoring is a crucial application, since deficiencies of the road surface due to non-planarity and subsidence put traffic at risk. In recent years, a Mobile Mapping System (MMS) has been developed at the University of Bonn, consisting of a GNSS/IMU unit and a 2D laser scanner. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the accuracy and precision of this MMS, where the height component is of main interest. Following this, the applicability of the MMS for monitoring the planarity and subsidence of road surfaces is analyzed. The test area for this study is a 6 km long section of the A44n motorway in Germany. For the evaluation of the MMS, leveled control points along the motorway as well as point cloud comparisons of repeated passes were used. In order to transform the ellipsoidal heights of the MMS into the physical height system of the control points, undulations were utilized. In this respect, a local tilt correction for the geoid model was determined based on GNSS baselines and leveling, leading to a physical height accuracy of the MMS of 〈 10 mm (RMS). The related height precision has a standard deviation of about 5 mm. Hence, a potential subsidence of the road surface in the order of a few cm is detectable. In addition, the point clouds were used to analyze the planarity of the road surface. In the course of this, the cross fall of the road was estimated with a standard deviation of 〈 0.07 %. Yet, no deficiencies of the road surface in the form of significant rut depths or fictive water depths were detected, indicating the proper condition of the A44n motorway. According to our tests, the MMS is appropriate for road monitoring.
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying