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  • 2015-2019  (47)
  • 2017  (19)
  • 2015  (28)
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  • 2015-2019  (47)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-04-13
    Description: Tropical influence on the austral summer Southern Annular Mode (SAM) over the ERA-40 period 1960/1961–2001/2002 is investigated using (1) a partially coupled climate model (PCM) driven by observed wind stress and (2) a version of the ECMWF atmospheric model by means of a relaxation technique. We show that the tropical influence in the PCM is dominated by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) whereas the relaxation experiments suggest an additional influence independent of ENSO. In the observations, we find that the simultaneous influence of ENSO on the summer SAM was much stronger after 1979 than before, with the consequence that the ensemble mean of the PCM captures around 50 % of the interannual variance of the SAM after 1979 and less than 10 % before. Nevertheless, in the ensemble mean of the PCM, the relationship between ENSO and the summer SAM is stable throughout the whole period 1960/1961–2001/2002, and it is the individual ensemble members that exhibit a non-stationary relationship like that found in the observations. It follows that variability not related to the observed wind forcing used to drive the PCM is important for obscuring the ENSO/SAM relationship. The experiments using relaxation show that tropical forcing was important for both the interannual variability and the trend of the summer SAM, even before 1979. Adding the observed extratropical sea surface temperature and sea-ice (SSTSI) to the tropical relaxation runs improves the model performance, indicative of a positive feedback from extratropical SSTSI onto the SAM.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    AMS (American Meteorological Society)
    In:  Journal of Climate, 28 (1). pp. 168-185.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Variations in the global tropospheric zonal mean zonal wind ([U]) during boreal winter are investigated using Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Functions applied to monthly means. The first two modes correspond to the Northern and Southern Annular Mode and modes 3 and 4 represent variability in the tropics. One is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation and the other has variability that is highly correlated with the time series of [U] at 150 hPa between 5°N and 5°S ([U150]E) and is related to activity of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The extratropical response to [U150]E is investigated using linear regressions of 500 hPa geopotential height onto the [U150]E time series. We make use of reanalysis data and of the ensemble mean output from a relaxation experiment using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts model in which the tropical atmosphere is relaxed towards reanalysis data. The regression analysis reveals that a shift of the Aleutian low and a wave train across the North Atlantic are associated with [U150]E. We find that the subtropical waveguides and the link between the North Pacific and North Atlantic are stronger during the easterly phase of [U150]E. The wave train over the North Atlantic is associated with Rossby wave sources over the subtropical North Pacific and North America. Finally, we show that a linear combination of both [U150]E and the Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the lower stratosphere can explain the circulation anomalies of the anomalously cold European winter of 1962/63 when both were in an extreme easterly phase.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: Near-inertial oscillations are ubiquitous in the ocean and are believed to play an important role in the global climate system. Studies on wind power input to near-inertial motions (WPI) have so far focused primarily on estimating the time-mean WPI, with little attention being paid to its temporal variability. In this study, a combination of atmospheric reanalysis products, a high-resolution ocean model and linear regression models are used to investigate for the first time the relationship between interannual variability of WPI in the North Atlantic and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), motivated by the idea that the NAO serves as a good indicator for storminess over the North Atlantic and that storms account for the majority of WPI. It is found that WPI at low and high latitudes of the North Atlantic is significantly correlated to the NAO, owing to its influence on the configuration of the storm track. Positive (negative) NAO conditions are associated with increased WPI in the subpolar (subtropical) ocean. Basin-wide WPI is found to be significantly enhanced under negative NAO conditions, but is not significantly different from the climatological average under positive NAO conditions. This indicates a weak inverse relationship between basin-wide WPI and the NAO, contradicting intuitive expectations. The asymmetric impact of the NAO on basin-wide WPI results from greater sensitivity of WPI to near-inertial wind forcing at lower latitudes due to the variation of the Coriolis parameter with latitude.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    In:  [Talk] In: 26. IUGG General Assembly, 22.6. - 2.7.2015, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Publication Date: 2015-07-07
    Description: The North Atlantic cold bias, associated with a too zonal path of the North Atlantic Current and a missing “northwest corner”, is a major problem in coupled models. It affects the North Atlantic Sector climate mean state, variability and predictability, as this severe model error is located in the North Atlantic storm track region. In the standard model version of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM), like in many other climate models, the surface heat flux is reversed in the northwest corner; the ocean gains heat, instead of releasing heat to the atmosphere as observed. The use of a Flow Field Correction (FFC) to adjust the path of the North Atlantic Current is investigated as well as additional corrections to the surface heat and freshwater fluxes. The FFC can be regarded as a means to correct for model error, e.g. associated with the deep water mass pathways and their impact on the circulation, and to parameterize unresolved processes such as eddy momentum flux convergence. The FFC does not depend on the state of the coupled model. Results show that the FFC allows a northward flow into the northwest corner, largely eliminating the subsurface bias in the KCM. A cold bias remains at the surface but can be eliminated by additionally correcting the surface freshwater flux, without adjusting the surface heat flux seen by the ocean model. Sea ice and convection occurs in more realistic positions in the corrected model versions, connected to a more northward extension of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Using the corrected model versions, we explore the North Atlantic region climate variability with a focus on the AMOC and basin-wide North Atlantic sea surface temperature variability known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation or Variability (AMO/V).
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    In:  [Poster] In: PIRATA-PREFACE-CLIVAR Tropical Atlantic Variability Conference, 24.-28.08.2015, Cape Town, South Africa .
    Publication Date: 2015-10-06
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    Royal Meteorological Society
    In:  Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 141 . pp. 153-165.
    Publication Date: 2017-04-13
    Description: A set of relaxation experiments using the ECMWF atmospheric model is used to analyse the severe European winter of 1962/63. We argue that the severe winter weather was associated with a wave train that originated in the tropical Pacific sector (where weak La Nina conditions were present) and was redirected towards Europe, a process we suggest was influenced by the combined effect of the strong easterly phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO ) and unusually strong easterly winds in the upper equatorial troposphere that winter. A weak tendency towards negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) conditions in December, associated with extratropical sea surface temperature and sea-ice anomalies, might have acted as a favourable preconditioning. The redirection of the wave train towards Europe culminated in the stratospheric sudden warming at the end of January 1963. We argue that in February, the sudden warming event helped maintain the negative NAO regime, allowing the severe weather to persist for a further month. A possible influence from the Madden-Julian Oscillation, as well as a role for internal atmospheric variability, is noted.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-04-13
    Description: Ocean observations carried out in the framework of the Collaborative Research Center 754 (SFB 754) "Climate-Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean" are used to study (1) the structure of tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), (2) the processes that contribute to the oxygen budget, and (3) long-term changes in the oxygen distribution. The OMZ of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA), located between the well-ventilated subtropical gyre and the equatorial oxygen maximum, is composed of a deep OMZ at about 400 m depth with its core region centred at about 20° W, 10° N and a shallow OMZ at about 100 m depth with lowest oxygen concentrations in proximity to the coastal upwelling region off Mauritania and Senegal. The oxygen budget of the deep OMZ is given by oxygen consumption mainly balanced by the oxygen supply due to meridional eddy fluxes (about 60%) and vertical mixing (about 20%, locally up to 30%). Advection by zonal jets is crucial for the establishment of the equatorial oxygen maximum. In the latitude range of the deep OMZ, it dominates the oxygen supply in the upper 300 to 400 m and generates the intermediate oxygen maximum between deep and shallow OMZs. Water mass ages from transient tracers indicate substantially older water masses in the core of the deep OMZ (about 120–180 years) compared to regions north and south of it. The deoxygenation of the ETNA OMZ during recent decades suggests a substantial imbalance in the oxygen budget: about 10% of the oxygen consumption during that period was not balanced by ventilation. Long-term oxygen observations show variability on interannual, decadal and multidecadal time scales that can partly be attributed to circulation changes. In comparison to the ETNA OMZ the eastern tropical South Pacific OMZ shows a similar structure including an equatorial oxygen maximum driven by zonal advection, but overall much lower oxygen concentrations approaching zero in extended regions. As the shape of the OMZs is set by ocean circulation, the widespread misrepresentation of the intermediate circulation in ocean circulation models substantially contributes to their oxygen bias, which might have significant impacts on predictions of future oxygen levels.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: slideshow
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: An ocean circulation model is run using two different idealized equatorial basin configurations under steady wind forcing. Both model versions produce bands of vertically alternating zonal flow at depth, similar to observed Equatorial Deep Jets (EDJs) and with a time scale corresponding to that of the gravest equatorial basin mode for the dominant baroclinic vertical normal mode. Both model runs show evidence for enhanced variability in the surface signature of the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) with the same time scale. We also find the same link between the observed NECC and the EDJs in the Atlantic by comparing the signature of the EDJ in moored zonal velocity data at 23° W on the equator with the signature of the NECC in geostrophic velocities from altimeter data. We argue that the presence of a peak in variability in the NECC associated with the EDJ basin mode period is evidence that the influenceatthis time scale is upward, from the EDJ to the NECC
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The North Atlantic cold bias, associated with the misplacement of the North Atlantic Current (NAC) and typically extending from the surface to 1000 m depth, is a common problem in coupled models that compromises model fidelity. We investigate the use of a flow field correction (FFC) to adjust the path of the NAC and alleviate the cold bias. The FFC consists of three steps. First, climatological potential temperature (T) and salinity (S) fields for use with the model are produced using a three-dimensional restoring technique. Second, these T, S fields are used to modify the momentum equations of the ocean model. In the third stage, the correction term is diagnosed to construct a flow-independent correction. Results using the Kiel Climate Model show that the FFC allows the establishment of a northwest corner, substantially alleviating the subsurface cold bias. A cold bias remains at the surface but can be eliminated by additionally correcting the surface freshwater flux, without adjusting the surface heat flux seen by the ocean model. A model version in which only the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater are corrected continues to exhibit the incorrect path of the NAC and a strong subsurface bias. We also show that the bias in the atmospheric circulation is reduced in some corrected model versions. The FFC can be regarded as a way to correct for model error, e.g. associated with the deep water mass pathways and their impact on the large-scale ocean circulation, and unresolved processes such as eddy momentum flux convergence.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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