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  • 2010-2014  (3)
  • 1935-1939
  • 2014  (3)
  • 2010-2014  (3)
  • 1935-1939
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-12-09
    Description: We examined the sensitivity of the electrochemical spectral induced polarization (SIP) model developed by Wong to the oxidation extent of pyrite and pyrrhotite minerals disseminated in silica sand. The sensitivity of this model to the oxidation of sulfide minerals was mainly related to the model parameters defining the ratio of the active to the inactive passive ions $$({c}_{2}/{c}_{o})$$ dissolved in the pore water, and the variation of the current reaction parameters $$\alpha $$ and $$\beta $$ . The increase in these parameters as well as in the associated exchange current densities, $${i}_{o}(\alpha )$$ and $${i}_{o}(\beta )$$ was consistent with an increase in the activation of the charge transfer at the metal-electrolyte interface, resulting in the decrease in polarization of such an interface, which was reflected by a decrease in the SIP phase response as previously argued by Wong. Under this premise, the model described fairly well measurements below 500 Hz from a laboratory experiment, being consistent with the depletion of the SIP phase response associated with the oxidation degree promoted on the disseminate sulfides analyzed here. This suggested that electrochemical modeling of SIP measurements can provide information to assess the oxidation state of sulfides and also to infer the formation of passivating layers coating the metal minerals during oxidation-dissolution processes. Our results suggested a possible alternative for the monitoring of mine waste deposits producing acid mine drainage and the stability of sequestered harmful metals during remedial treatments by means of the SIP method.
    Print ISSN: 0016-8033
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2156
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-03-10
    Description: Northern peatlands cover more than 350 million ha and are an important source of methane (CH4) and other biogenic gases contributing to climate change. Free-phase gas (FPG) accumulation and episodic release has recently been recognized as an important mechanism for biogenic gas flux from peatlands. It is likely that gas production and groundwater flow are interconnected in peatlands: groundwater flow influences gas production by regulating geochemical conditions and nutrient supply available for methanogenesis, while FPG influences groundwater flow through a reduction in peat permeability and by creating excess pore water pressures. Water samples collected from three well sites at Caribou Bog, Maine, show substantial dissolved CH4 (5–16 mg L−1) in peat waters below 2 m depth and an increase in concentrations with depth. This suggests production and storage of CH4 in deep peat that may be episodically released as FPG. Two min increment pressure transducer data reveal approximately 5 cm fluctuations in hydraulic head from both deep and shallow peat that are believed to be indicative of FPG release. FPG release persists up to 24 h during decreasing atmospheric pressure and a rising water table. Preferential flow is seen towards an area of relatively lower hydraulic head associated with the esker and pool system. Increased CH4 concentrations are also found at the depth of the esker crest, suggesting that the high permeability esker is acting as a conduit for groundwater flow, driving a downward transport of labile carbon, resulting in higher rates of CH4 production.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-08-08
    Description: Electrical geophysical methods, including electrical resistivity, time-domain induced polarization, and complex resistivity, have become commonly used to image the near subsurface. Here, we outline their utility for time-lapse imaging of hydrological, geochemical, and biogeochemical processes, focusing on new instrumentation, processing, and analysis techniques specific to monitoring. We review data collection procedures, parameters measured, and petrophysical relationships and then outline the state of the science with respect to inversion methodologies, including coupled inversion. We conclude by highlighting recent research focused on innovative applications of time-lapse imaging in hydrology, biology, ecology, and geochemistry, among other areas of interest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Print ISSN: 0885-6087
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1085
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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