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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: High-resolution mesoscale model simulations of the 6-7 May 2000 Missouri flash flood event were performed to test the impact of model initialization and land surface treatment on timing, intensity, and location of extreme precipitation. In this flash flood event, a mesoscale convective system (MCS) produced over 340 mm of rain in roughly 9 hours in some locations. Two different types of model initialization were employed: 1) NCEP global reanalysis with 2.5-degree grid spacing and 12-hour temporal resolution, and 2) Eta reanalysis with 40- km grid spacing and $hour temporal resolution. In addition, two different land surface treatments were considered. A simple land scheme. (SLAB) keeps soil moisture fixed at initial values throughout the simulation, while a more sophisticated land model (PLACE) allows for r interactive feedback. Simulations with high-resolution Eta model initialization show considerable improvement in the intensity of precipitation due to the presence in the initialization of a residual mesoscale convective vortex (hlCV) from a previous MCS. Simulations with the PLACE land model show improved location of heavy precipitation. Since soil moisture can vary over time in the PLACE model, surface energy fluxes exhibit strong spatial gradients. These surface energy flux gradients help produce a strong low-level jet (LLJ) in the correct location. The LLJ then interacts with the cold outflow boundary of the MCS to produce new convective cells. The simulation with both high-resolution model initialization and time-varying soil moisture test reproduces the intensity and location of observed rainfall.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: This paper represents the consensus view of the 124 participants in the Second Workshop on New Concepts for Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Space Astronomy.We recommend that NASA pursue the vision for far-IR astronomy outlined in the NAS Decadal Survey, which said: A rational coordinated program for space optical and infrared astronomy would build on the experience gained with NGST1 to construct [a JWST-scale filled-aperture far-IR telescope SAFIR, and then ultimately, in the decade 2010 to 2020, build on the SAFIR, TPF, and SIM experience to assemble a space-based, far-infrared interferometer. SAFIR will study star formation in the young universe, the buildup of elements heavier than hydrogen over cosmic history, the process of galaxy formation, and the early phases of star formation, which occur behind a veil of dust that precludes detection at mid IR and shorter wavelengths. The far-infrared interferometer will resolve distant galaxies to study protogalaxy interactions and mergers and the processes that led to enhanced star formation activity and the formation of Active Galactic Nuclei, and will resolve protostars and debris disks in our Galaxy to study how stars and planetary systems form.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: New Concepts for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Space Astronomy; XV-XXVI; NASA/CP-2003-212233
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Targeted Research & Technology (TR&T) NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative is a systematic, goal-oriented research program targeting those aspects of the Sun-Earth system that affect society. The Targeted Research and Technology (TR&T) component of LWS provides the theory, modeling, and data analysis necessary to enable an integrated, system-wide picture of Sun-Earth connection science with societal relevance. Recognizing the central and essential role that TR&T would have for the success of the LWS initiative, the LWS Science Architecture Team (SAT) recommended that a Science Definition Team (SDT), with the same status as a flight mission definition team, be formed to design and coordinate a TR&T program having prioritized goals and objectives that focused on practical societal benefits. This report details the SDT recommendations for the TR&T program.
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Ancient geologic/hydrologic phenomena on Mars observed through the magnetic data [1,2] provide windows to the ancient past through the younger Argyre and Hellas impacts [e.g., 3,4], the northern plains basement [5], and the Tharsis and Elysium magmatic complexes (recently referred to as superplumes [6,7]). These signatures, coupled with highly degraded macrostructures (tectonic features that are tens to thousands of km-long [8]), reflect an energetic planet during its embryonic development (.5 Ga or so of activity) with an active dynamo and magnetosphere [1,2,6]. One such window into the ancient past occurs northwest of the Hellas impact basin in Arabia Terra. Arabia Terra is one of the few water-rich equatorial regions of Mars, as indicated through impact crater [9] and elemental [10,11] information. This region records many unique traits, including stratigraphy, topography, cratering record, structural character, geomorphology, and geophysical, elemental, albedo, and thermal inertia signatures. We interpret these to collectively indicate a possible ancient giant impact basin that later became an important aquifer, as it provided yet another source of water for the formation of putative water bodies that occupied the northern plains [12,13] and addresses possible water-related characteristics that may be observed at the Opportunity landing site. This basin is antipodal to Tharsis and estimated to be at least 3,000 km in diameter.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Impacts on Mars and Earth; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Recent observations of the 2001 dust storms encircling Mars confirm predictions of environmental challenges for exploration. Martian dust has been found to completely mantle the Martian surface over thousands of square kilometers and the opacity of airborne dust has been shown to be capable of modifying atmospheric temperature, radiative transfer and albedo. Planetary dust cycling dynamics are suggested to be a key factor in the evolution of the Martian surface. Long-term robotic and manned exploration of Mars will be confronted by dust deposition in periods of atmospheric calm and violent wind storms. Aeolian dust deposition recorded during the Mars Pathfinder mission was estimated to fall at rates of 20-45 microns per Earth year. Although many tools of exploration will be challenged by coating, adhesion, abrasion and possible chemical reaction of deposited, wind blown and actively disturbed Martian dust, solar cells are thought to be of primary concern. Recent modeling work of power output by gallium arsenide/germanium solar cells was validated by the Pathfinder Lander data and showed power output decreases of 0.1 to 0.5% per Martian day. A major determinant for the optimal positioning angle of solar panels employed in future missions is the angle of repose of the settling dust particles that is dependent on a variety of physical and chemical properties of the particles, the panel surface, and the environmental conditions on the Mars surface. While the effects of many of these factors are well understood qualitatively, quantitative analyses, especially under physical and chemical conditions prevailing on the Mars surface are lacking.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Missions and Instruments: Hopes and Hope Fulfilled; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The objective of this investigation is to develop a prototype floodwater detection algorithm for Hyperion imagery. It will be run autonomously onboard the EO-1 spacecraft under the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE). This effort resulted in the development of two classifiers for floodwater, one of several classifier types that have been developed and will be uploaded to EO-1 in early 2004 in order to detect change related to transient processes such as volcanism, flooding, and ice formation and retreat.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Image Processing and Earth Observations; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 7
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ancient geologic and hydrologic phenomena on Mars observed through the magnetic data provide windows to the ancient past through the younger Argyre and Hellas impacts, the northern plains basement and the rock materials that mantle the basement, and the Tharsis and Elysium magmatic complexes (recently referred to as superplumes). These signatures, coupled with highly degraded macrostructures (tectonic features that energetic planet during its embryonic development (0.5 Ga or so of activity) with an active dynamo and magnetosphere. One such window into the ancient past occurs northwest of the Hellas impact basin in Arabia Tern. Arabia Terra is one of the few water-rich equatorial regions of Mars, as indicated I through impact crater and elemental information. This region records many unique characteristics, including predominately Noachian materials, a highland-lowland boundary region that is distinct from other boundary regions, the presence of very few macrostructures when compared to the rest of the cratered highlands, the largest region of fretted terrain on Mars, outflow channels such as Mamers Valles that do not have obvious origins, and distinct albedo, thermal inertia, gravity, magnetic, and elemental signatures.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Workshop on Hemispheres Apart: The Origin and Modification of The Martian Crustal Dichotomy; 13-14; LPI-Contrib-1213
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Planetary geologists, geomorphologists, and hydrologists have hypothesized that Mars is a dynamic, water-enriched planet since the Mariner and Viking missions based on geologic, geomorphic, and topographic information. Recent acquisition of Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer information has added further credence to this hypothesis. A unique investigation is underway to work towards being able to successfully map the extent and depth of water on Mars. Researchers from the University of Arizona and members of the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) have been compiling multiple layers of information in time and space at the Central Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (CAVSARP) site, Tucson, Arizona, for eventual comparative analysis. This information has been acquired from a variety of observational/scientific platforms in controlled conditions. CAVSARP facility:
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Image Processing and Earth Observations; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: Different-sized bodies of water have been proposed to have occurred episodically in the lowlands of Mars throughout the planet's history, largely related to major stages of development of Tharsis and/or orbital obliquity. These water bodies range from large oceans in the Noachian-Early Hesperian, to a minor sea in the Late Hesperian, and dispersed lakes during the Amazonian. To evaluate the more recent discoveries regarding the oceanic possibility, here we perform a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of water on Mars, including: 1. Geological assessment of proposed shorelines; 2. A volumetric approximation to the plains-filing proposed oceans; 3. Geochemistry of the oceans and derived mineralogies; 4. Post-oceanic (i.e., Amazonian) evolution of the shorelines; and 5. Ultimate water evolution on Mars.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Second Conference on Early Mars: Geologic Hydrologic, and Climatic Evolution and the Implications for Life; LPI-Contrib-1211
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