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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-01-20
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 73 data points
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, must first infect hepatocytes to initiate a mammalian infection. Sporozoites migrate through several hepatocytes, by breaching their plasma membranes, before infection is finally established in one of them. Here we show that wounding of hepatocytes by ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Innate immune responses provide the host with an early protection barrier against infectious agents, including viruses, and help shape the nature and quality of the subsequent adaptive immune responses of the host. Expression of ISG15 (UCRP), a ubiquitin-like protein, and protein ISGylation are ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature genetics 34 (2003), S. 135-141 
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] In all eukaryotic cells, the cytosolic concentration of calcium ions ([Ca2+]c) is tightly controlled by complex interactions among transporters, pumps, channels and binding proteins. Finely tuned changes in [Ca2+]c modulate a variety of intracellular functions, and disruption of Ca2+ handling leads ...
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  • 5
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: The Philippines has not been immune to the worldwide trend towards the creation of semi-autonomous revenue authorities. To date, three bills are pending at the House of Representatives seeking to establish a semi-autonomous internal revenue administration to replace the Bureau of Internal Revenue. A review of the international experience reveals that the record of semi-autonomous revenue authorities in improving tax effort and in combating corruption is mixed. Moreover, even in many of the countries that have shown some degree of success with the model, there is some evidence that the gains in revenue performance tend to be eroded after some time. The more successful and sustainable revenue authorities appear to be those that have a higher degree of autonomy. Thus, should Philippine authorities decide to adopt the autonomous revenue authority model, it is imperative that it should be done right. Half measures will not be good enough. Doing it right implies that the new tax agency should be vested with strong autonomy-enhancing features and accountability mechanisms. The paper reviews the specific provisions of the alternative bills and suggests concrete areas for improvement.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; tax effort ; semi-autonomous revenue authority ; tax gap ; Finanzverwaltung ; Effizienz ; Philippinen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: The President’s Budget for 2004 is the administration’s last prior to the forthcoming presidential elections in May 2004. Thus, it is but timely to assess not only the proposed 2004 budget itself but also the present administration’s fiscal performance in the last three years. The evaluation of the President’s Budget for 2001-2004 that is presented in this paper is composed of three parts: (i) an evaluation of the overall fiscal outlook as projected in the President’s Budget in terms of its sustainability; (ii) an examination of its revenue program; and (iii) the congruence of the expenditure program with policy pronouncements and budgetary intent as articulated in the Medium-Term Development Plan (MTPDP). This paper also highlights why it is critical to always have a comprehensive picture of the public sector. It documents how the positive fiscal outlook for the national government in 2003-2004 masks the rapid deterioration in the fiscal position of the nonfinancial public sector mainly because of the huge losses registered by a number of GOCCs. While the nonfinancial public sector in the aggregate is projected to have a small primary surplus in 2004 after posting primary deficits in 2002-2003, its consolidated fiscal position is deemed to be unsustainable in 2003-2004. The solutions to this problem are not easy: increasing tariffs, privatization and regulatory reform.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; fiscal deficit ; tax effort ; fiscal sustainability ; nonfinancial public sector ; Öffentlicher Haushalt ; Haushaltsdefizit ; Philippinen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: The paper traces the roots of the present fiscal problem and concludes that it is largely attributable to the deterioration of the national government’s revenue effort. On the other hand, because the government relied heavily on across-the-board budget cuts in order to maintain some semblance of fiscal control in the face of a persistent decline in revenue performance, investments in physical and human capital suffered the brunt of the adjustment. At the same time, the study points out that it is not enough to focus on the fiscal position of the national government and highlights the need to look at the complete fiscal picture by examining more closely the consolidated public sector deficit. The fiscal deficit of nonfinancial public sector has been rising steeply (from 0.6% of GDP in 1996 to over 7% of GDP in 2003) largely on account of government-owned and/or controlled corporations (GOCCs). In turn, outstanding debt of the nonfinancial public sector rose persistently from 75.4 percent of GDP in 1996 to 105.0 percent as of end of September 2003. The study then proceeds to outline the key elements of a fiscal reform agenda: tax policy and tax administration reform, public expenditure management reform, and GOCC reform. It points out that the burden of the adjustment should rest on the revenue side. At the same time, any further attempt to cut government expenditure in the aggregate is likely to be counterproductive. This does not mean, however, that reforms are not needed on the expenditure side. With or without a fiscal problem, reforms in public expenditure management are essential in ensuring that government gets the biggest bang out of every peso that it spends. In this regard, minimizing waste and curbing corruption should be on top of the agenda. The paper then spells out in some detail the needed reforms in each of the three areas. A big part of the paper is devoted to an evaluation of the many new tax measures that have been proposed to date.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; fiscal deficit ; tax effort ; public expenditure management ; GOCC reform ; consolidated public sector ; Finanzpolitik ; Öffentliche Finanzen ; Gemischtwirtschaftliches Unternehmen ; Finanzreform ; Steuerreform ; Philippinen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: Twelve years into the implementation of the Local Government Code of 1991, it is but opportune to assess how the key features of this landmark legislation has contributed to (or detracted from) achieving the balance between local autonomy and accountability. The literature on fiscal decentralization suggests that these two goals are not incompatible. In fact, real autonomy (in the sense of subnational governments being able to link their spending decisions with their revenue/tax decisions) promotes fiscal responsibility. In the context of the ongoing debate in the Philippines, however, local autonomy has been equated (by many LGUs officials) with the independence of LGUs from central government interference. As such, LGU officials have focused more on securing even higher levels of block grants in order to address the widely perceived vertical fiscal imbalance. However, closer scrutiny of the problem indicates that greater tax decentralization coupled with a well designed intergovernmental transfer system that includes elements of fiscal equalization and categorical grants conditional on the achievement of minimum service standards would better enhance the gains that are forthcoming from the decentralization process while minimizing the risks of macroinstability.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; fiscal decentralization ; fiscal autonomy ; fiscal accountability ; tax assignment ; expenditure assignment ; vertical balance ; horizontal balance ; block grants ; categorical grants ; equalization grants ; Finanzpolitik ; Finanzreform ; Dezentralisierung ; Finanzbeziehungen ; Philippinen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2015-09-05
    Description: The spatial polarisation of services is one of the explanations for present regional disparities. A new international division of labour based on Business Services has appeared, in which multinational firms play an important role. This paper aims to examine the repercussions of the behaviour of firms in the advanced business services (ABS) sector on peripheral regions. Particularly, we analyse the case of Andalusia – a region situated in a “central area”, the European Union, but characterised as peripheral-. Using direct research – interviews carried out with a representative sample of enterprises -, we study the impact of these multinational firms, not only from the point of view of the companies which offer these services in Andalusia, but also from the point of view of demand – enterprises which use these services -. Multinational firms Business advanced services Peripheral regions Uneven regional development Andalusia
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 421 (2003), S. 129-130 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The price reaction to a single transaction depends on transaction volume, the identity of the stock, and possibly many other factors. Here we show that, by taking into account the differences in liquidity for stocks of different size classes of market capitalization, we can rescale both the ...
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