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  • 1995-1999  (5)
  • 1995  (5)
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  • 1995-1999  (5)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Four different samples of aerosol particles over the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, an area near the equator influenced by Saharan mineral dust, and the Antarctic Ocean were collected on board of the German research vessel “Polarstern” by a six stage cascade impactor system. A continental sample, typical in its size distribution pattern and heavy metal enrichment factors (relative to crust material) for industrialized areas, was used for comparison. To analyse the elements of interest, isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) using the thermal ionization technique was applied. The samples were digested with nitric acid followed by an electrodeposition of the heavy metals to be analysed in alkaline solution. Source identification could be carried out by the distribution of the heavy metals and enrichment factors on the different impactor stages using iron as a reference element for crustal origin. Two opposite types of size distribution patterns were obtained over the Atlantic Ocean. On the one hand, the main heavy metal fraction was found to be associated with the smallest particles collected on the last two impactor stages and the back-up filter with aerodynamic diameters (AD) of less than 0.95 μm. This pattern together with the high enrichment factors of up to several thousand indicates combustion processes and biogenic emissions as possible sources and were typical for cadmium and lead. On the other hand, chromium and iron were preferably associated with the larger particles of 〉1.5 μm AD. This and the low chromium enrichment factor demonstrate that the earth crust is the major source for these two elements in marine aerosol particles. Thallium and nickel could not be classified by one of these two size distribution patterns, which indicates that at least two different primary sources contribute to the content of these heavy metals in marine aerosol particles depending on the region investigated. Contrary to that, the sample collected over the Antarctic Ocean showed some significant differences. Here, a substantial amount of the total cadmium and lead was associated with the larger particles. However, relatively high enrichment factors found for cadmium, nickel, lead, and thallium in the smallest particles suggest a natural source, probably biogenic activities, in the Antarctic Ocean.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract An isotope dilution mass spectrometric method has been developed for the accurate and sensitive determination of iodide and iodate in aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The direct iodine speciation has been possible by the use of species specifically 129I enriched spike solutions and separation of the isotope diluted species by anion exchange chromatography after water extraction of the filters. Size fractionated collection of aerosol particles by a six stage impactor system shows different distributions of iodide and iodate for particles of different size with specific patterns for anthropogenically influenced continental and unpolluted marine aerosols, respectively. The detection limit for particulate iodide and iodate has been (3–5) pg/m3 for sampling volumes of 3000 m3. Oil, used for heating plants, could be identified as one but not the only anthropogenic iodine source.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract An isotope dilution mass spectrometric method has been developed for the accurate and sensitive determination of iodide and iodate in aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The direct iodine speciation has been possible by the use of species specifically 129I enriched spike solutions and separation of the isotope diluted species by anion exchange chromatography after water extraction of the filters. Size fractionated collection of aerosol particles by a six stage impactor system shows different distributions of iodide and iodate for particles of different size with specific patterns for anthropogenically influenced continental and unpolluted marine aerosols, respectively. The detection limit for particulate iodide and iodate has been (3–5) pg/m3 for sampling volumes of 3000 m3. Oil, used for heating plants, could be identified as one but not the only anthropogenic iodine source.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of statistical physics 79 (1995), S. 483-490 
    ISSN: 1572-9613
    Keywords: Biological aging ; Dauer state
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Here we present generalizations of a recently proposed aging model to include several ages and the “Dauer” state. The results show that increasing the number of ages does not matter in one version of the model, but matters in another version, and that the Dauer state does provide a favorable mechanism for survival.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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