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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Canton, MA : Science History Publ
    Call number: IASS 16.90605
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: IX, 373 S , Ill., Kt , 24 cm
    ISBN: 088135385X
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: In many policy areas it is essential to use the best estimates of life expectancy, but such estimates are vital to most areas of pension policy – from indexed access age and the calculation of initial benefits to the financial sustainability of pension schemes and the operation of their balancing mechanism. This paper presents the conceptual differences between static period and dynamic cohort mortality tables, estimates the differences in life expectancy between both tables using data from Portugal and Spain, and compares official estimates of both life expectancy estimates for Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States for 1981, 2010 and 2060. This comparison reveals major differences between period and cohort life expectancy in and between countries and across years. Using measures of period instead of cohort life expectancy creates an implicit subsidy for individuals of 30 percent or more, with potentially stark consequences on the financial sustainability of pension schemes. These and other implications for pension policy are explored and next steps suggested.
    Keywords: D9 ; G22 ; H55 ; J13 ; J14 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; cross-country comparison ; Lee-Carter ; life expectancy indexation ; balancing mechanism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: With the purpose of measuring and monitoring systemic risk, some topological properties of the interbank exposures and the payments system networks are studied. We propose non-topological measures which are useful to describe the individual behavior of banks in both networks. The evolution of such networks is also studied and some important conclusions from the systemic risks perspective are drawn. A unified measure of interconnectedness is also created. The main findings of this study are: the payments system network is strongly connected in contrast to the interbank exposures network; the type of exposures and payment size reveal different roles played by banks; behavior of banks in the exposures network changed considerably after Lehmans failure; interconnectedness of a bank, estimated by the unified measure, is not necessarily related with its assets size.
    Keywords: C01 ; C02 ; C44 ; C63 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; systemic risk ; financial networks ; payment systems ; Geldmarkt ; Zahlungsverkehr ; Finanzsektor ; Bank ; Mexiko
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: In many policy areas it is essential to use the best estimates of life expectancy, but it is vital to most areas of pension policy. This paper presents the conceptual differences between static period and dynamic cohort mortality tables, estimates the differences in life expectancy for Portugal and Spain, and compares official estimates of both life expectancy estimates for Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States for 1981, 2010, and 2060. These comparisons reveal major differences between period and cohort life expectancy in and between countries and across years. The implications of using wrong estimates for pension policy, including financial sustainability, are explored.
    Keywords: G22 ; H55 ; J14 ; ddc:330 ; cross-country comparison ; Lee-Carter ; life expectancy indexation ; balancing mechanism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: E62 ; H55 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; Private Altersvorsorge ; Steuer ; Einkommensteuer ; Portugal
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Department für Agrarökonomie und Rurale Entwicklung (DARE)
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Nahrungsmittelversorgung ; Nahrungsmittelkonsum ; Ernährung ; Verbraucherausgaben ; Syrien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-09-22
    Description: This study estimates Climate Adjusted Total Factor Productivity (CATFP) for agriculture in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries, while also providing comparisons with several regions of the world. Climatic variability is introduced in Stochastic Production Frontier (SPF) models by including average annual maximum temperature, precipitation and its monthly intra-year standard deviations, and the number of rainy days. Climatic conditions have a negative impact on production becoming stronger at the end of the 2000s compared to earlier periods. An Error Correction Model is applied to investigate catch-up and convergence across LAC countries. Argentina defines the frontier in LAC and TFP convergence is found across all South American countries, Costa Rica, Mexico, Barbados and The Bahamas. Using IPCC 2014 scenarios, the study shows that climatic variability induces significant reductions in productivity (2.3% to 10.7%), over the 2013-2040 period. Estimated output losses due to climatic variability range from 9% to 20% in the LAC region depending on the scenario considered.
    Keywords: D24 ; Q54 ; O47 ; E27 ; ddc:330 ; Agriculture ; Total Factor Productivity ; Stochastic Production Frontiers ; Climate Effects ; Convergence ; Forecasting ; Latin America and the Caribbean
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: This paper studies the labor supply of South Indian boat owners using daily labor participation decisions of 249 boat owners during seven years. We test the standard neoclassical model of labor supply and find that boat owners' labor participation depends positively on expected earnings but also on recent accumulated earnings, albeit weakly. Participation elasticities with respect to expected earnings range between 0.8 and 1.3 and about -0.05 and -0.01 with respect to changes in recent income. While the standard neoclassical model is statistically rejected, it is a good approximation of the labor supply behavior of boat owners in southern India.
    Keywords: J22 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; intertemporal labor supply ; daily income
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-20
    Description: This paper demonstrates that the link between heterogeneity in longevity and lifetime income across countries is mostly high and often increasing; that it translates into an implicit tax/subsidy, with rates reaching 20 percent and higher in some countries; that such rates risk perverting redistributive objectives of pension schemes and distorting individual lifecycle labor supply and savings decisions; and that this in turn risks invalidating current reform approaches of a closer contribution-benefit link and life expectancy-indexed retirement age. All of this calls for mechanisms that neutralize or at least significantly reduce the effects of heterogeneity in longevity through changes in pension design. The paper suggests and explores a number of interventions in the accumulation, benefit determination, and disbursement stages. Among the explored approaches, a two-tier contribution structure seems promising, as a moderate social contribution rate that is already proportionally allocated to the average contribution base is able to broadly compensate for empirically established heterogeneity in the life expectancy/lifetime income relationship.
    Keywords: D9 ; G22 ; H55 ; J13 ; J14 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; defined contribution scheme ; two-tier contribution structure ; proxied life expectancy ; tax/subsidy structure
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2016-08-20
    Description: The semi-dual income tax typically combines a progressive tax schedule for labour and pension income with low and often flat and differentiated nominal tax rates on some forms of capital income. This paper discusses the rationale for the adoption of semi-dual income tax in the taxation of public, occupational and private pensions and other retirement income, taking the Portuguese experience as a possible guide to other countries. The particular effects of pension taxation on the timing, level and composition of saving are assessed, together with horizontal and vertical equity, neutrality and risk-sharing concerns. Moving to a semi-dual income tax offers both advantages and disadvantages in addressing the pension system long term goals and challenges, and represents a compromise between domestic and international competing considerations an open economy faces in designing a tax regime. The adoption may be a result of a clear tax reform strategy or simply an outcome of particular economic, demographic, political and social circumstances. Providing separate tax rates for labour and capital income allows countries greater flexibility in addressing international tax competition and greater opportunity to retain and augment progressive tax rates for labour and pension income but tax induced distortions and arbitrage opportunities for income-shifting between categories should not be neglected given their impact on the taxable base for social contributions.
    Keywords: H20 ; H21 ; H24 ; H55 ; ddc:330 ; taxation of pensions ; income tax reform ; semi-dual income tax ; capital income tax
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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