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  • 1
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    Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft (IfW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: In the process of the German unification and especially after the formal unification in October 1990, Eastern Germany was supported by West Germany by a lot of measures. The main purposes were to improve the infrastructure, to stimulate private investment and to alleviate the adjustment process for the population by transfers to private households. The paper describes the measures in some detail. Many of these were decided upon in an ad hoc manner, in some cases experience (partly from the period of reconstruction in West Germany after World War II) was available. The methods of financing are described, too. Emphasis is laid on the policy in the field of social insurance. Finally, it is tried to draw some conclusions which might be helpful in case of a unification of South and North Korea.
    Keywords: H59 ; H79 ; ddc:330 ; intergovernmental relations ; debt ; social security ; Finanzpolitik ; Öffentlicher Transfer ; Sozialversicherung ; Sozialtransfer ; Öffentliche Schulden ; Öffentlicher Haushalt ; Nationale Einheit ; Deutschland ; Neue Bundesländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft (IfW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: Since the fall of last year, EMU countries have experienced a slowdown in economic activity triggered by a deceleration of exports. The expansion of internal demand has been more or less intact due to low interest rates and higher terms of trade. Consumer confidence has continued to rise and business confidence seems to have stabilized in early 1999. Economic activity in Euroland will gain momentum again in the course of 1999, mainly driven by domestic demand. The increase in real GDP will amount to 2 percent in 1999 and 2.7 percent in the year 2000. Monetary conditions are currently very favorable and will support the upswing. The three-month money market rate fell to 3.1 % following the concerted reduction of central banks' key interest rates in December 1998. Long-term interest rates are extremely low; corrected for inflation, the rate for Euroland is lower than the long-term average for Germany. In recent months, the growth rate of M3 has been somewhat higher than the reference value announced by the ECB (4.5 percent); narrow money has expanded twice as fast as M3. In addition, the euro has devalued considerably against the US dollar since the beginning of this year. Given the expectation that the slowdown in the economy is only of temporary nature, the ECB will not loosen its policy further but keep its key interest rate at the current low level for the rest of this year. The ECB decided to follow a medium-term strategy. Against this background, the current weakness in Euroland does not imply a need for action. Low inflation is also no reason to cut interest rates because consumer prices have been dampened by special factors, in particular the weakness of raw material prices, and not by a tight monetary policy. If interest rates were lowered in response to this transitory change, they would have to be raised again as soon as this effect fades away. Such a stop-and-go policy should be avoided. Likewise, the recent weakness of the euro against major currencies does not suggest that interest rates should be raised. For very good reasons, the ECB—as well as the American Federal Reserve Board—does not follow a target for exchange rates. According to the Stability and Growth Programs published by the governments, budget deficits in relation to GDP are projected to decline from 2.3 percent in 1998 to 0.9 percent in the year 2002 in Euroland. As the Stability and Growth Pact calls for a balanced budget or even a surplus over the medium term, fiscal policy is, in general, not yet on a course compatible with the intentions of the Maastricht Treaty. Only in smaller countries fiscal policy is making progress, while consolidation in larger member countries is not sufficient. It has often been argued that it is necessary to harmonize VAT rates and particularly capital income taxation in the EU in order to prevent a "race to the bottom", otherwise it would be impossible to supply an adequate level of public goods and to finance the welfare state. However, the development of capital income tax rates in the EU and in other industrialized countries does not provide evidence of a race to the bottom. But even if tax competition should become fiercer, there are still arguments in favor of competition: If tax rates are cut in a process of competition, government expenditures will have to decline with the result that inefficiencies in the public sector will be reduced. Given the high levels of government expenditures in most of the EU countries, there seems to be no risk that governments would be unable to fulfill their specific functions. In addition, tax competition might help to find better tax systems, and every country could learn from the experiences of other countries. In contrast, tax harmonization would probably lead to higher taxes in the EU.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Konjunkturprognose ; Geldpolitik ; Finanzpolitik ; EU-Steuerrecht ; Steuerwettbewerb ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: Table of Contents: I. External Challenges 12 1. The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe 12 a. Trends in Central and Eastern Europe's Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) 12 b. The Impact on Germany 14 c. Political Consequences 14 2. Migration Pressures 16 a. The European Perspective 16 b. The German Perspective 18 c. Some Policy Issues 21 3. The Multilateral Trading System 22 a. Rising Tide of Protectionism 22 b. The German Trade Policy Stance 23 c. Perspectives 24 4. Industrial Policy 25 a. The Recent Controversy 25 b. The Record of Interventions 27 c. Future Prospects 28 5. The Adjustment of Agriculture 29 a. Global Prospects 29 b. The Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 30 6. European Integration 32 a. Monetary Union 32 b. Financial Markets 34 c. EC Initiatives on Social Policy 36 II. Internal Challenges 40 1. German Unification 40 a. The Rising Fiscal Burden 40 b. Economic Dualization 41 c. Digression: The "Treuhand" Record and Prospects 42 d. New Regional Growth Patterns 43 e. Political Pragmatism 45 2. Demography and the Welfare State 46 a. Facts and Forecasts 46 b. Implications for the Welfare State 50 3. Labour Markets and Collective Bargaining 52 a. Trends and Developments 52 b. The Future of Unionism 53 HI. Resources and Infrastructure 55 1. Energy and the Environment 55 a. Energy and Environmental Policy in the EC and in Germany 55 b. The Eastern German Energy Market and Environmental Targets 57 2. Transport 57 a. General Trends in Europe 57 b. The German Situation 59 c. Policy: Consensus and Controversies 60 d. Supranational Matter: The Role of the EC 61
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Wirtschaftsprognose ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Tübingen: Mohr | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:review
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  • 5
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Steuerwettbewerb ; Kapitalertragsteuer ; Steueraufkommen ; Körperschaftsteuer ; OECD-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft (IfW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Tübingen: Mohr | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:review
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  • 8
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    Tübingen: Mohr | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kapitalertragsteuer ; Steuerreform ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:bookPart
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  • 9
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    Frankfurt: Campus-Verl. | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Simulation ; Lohnsteuer ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft (IfW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kapitalertragsteuer ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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