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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 160 data points
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: van Pinxteren, Manuela; Müller, Conny; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Stolle, Christian; Herrmann, Hartmut (2012): Chemical characterization of dissolved organic compounds from coastal sea surface microlayers (Baltic Sea, Germany). Environmental Science & Technology, 46(19), 10455-10462, https://doi.org/10.1021/es204492b
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: The physicochemical properties of the sea surface microlayer (SML), i.e. the boundary layer between the air and the sea, and its impact on air-sea exchange processes have been investigated for decades. However, a detailed description about these processes remains incomplete. In order to obtain a better chemical characterization of the SML, in a case study three pairs of SML and corresponding bulk water samples were taken in the southern Baltic Sea. The samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon and dissolved total nitrogen, as well as for several organic nitrogen containing compounds and carbohydrates, namely aliphatic amines, dissolved free amino acids, dissolved free monosaccharides, sugar alcohols, and monosaccharide anhydrates. Therefore, reasonable analytical procedures with respect to desalting and enrichment were established. All aliphatic amines and the majority of the investigated amino acids (11 out of 18) were found in the samples with average concentrations between 53 ng/l and 1574 ng/l. The concentrations of carbohydrates were slightly higher, averaging 2900 ng/l. Calculation of the enrichment factor (EF) between the sea surface microlayer and the bulk water showed that dissolved total nitrogen was more enriched (EF: 1.1 and 1.2) in the SML than dissolved organic carbon (EF: 1.0 and 1.1). The nitrogen containing organic compounds were generally found to be enriched in the SML (EF: 1.9-9.2), whereas dissolved carbohydrates were not enriched or even depleted (EF: 0.7-1.2). Although the investigated compounds contributed on average only 0.3% to the dissolved organic carbon and 0.4% to the total dissolved nitrogen fraction, these results underline the importance of single compound analysis to determine SML structure, function, and its potential for a transfer of compounds into the atmosphere.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 31 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-04-23
    Description: The physicochemical properties of the sea surface microlayer (SML), i.e. the boundary layer between the air and the sea, and its impact on air-sea exchange processes have been investigated for decades. However, a detailed description about these processes remains incomplete. In order to obtain a better chemical characterization of the SML, in a case study three pairs of SML and corresponding bulk water samples were taken in the southern Baltic Sea. The samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon and dissolved total nitrogen, as well as for several organic nitrogen containing compounds and carbohydrates, namely aliphatic amines, dissolved free amino acids, dissolved free monosaccharides, sugar alcohols, and monosaccharide anhydrates. Therefore, reasonable analytical procedures with respect to desalting and enrichment were established. All aliphatic amines and the majority of the investigated amino acids (11 out of 18) were found in the samples with average concentrations between 53 ng L–1 and 1574 ng L–1. The concentrations of carbohydrates were slightly higher, averaging 2900 ng L–1. Calculation of the enrichment factor (EF) between the sea surface microlayer and the bulk water showed that dissolved total nitrogen was more enriched (EF: 1.1 and 1.2) in the SML than dissolved organic carbon (EF: 1.0 and 1.1). The nitrogen containing organic compounds were generally found to be enriched in the SML (EF: 1.9–9.2), whereas dissolved carbohydrates were not enriched or even depleted (EF: 0.7–1.2). Although the investigated compounds contributed on average only 0.3% to the dissolved organic carbon and 0.4% to the total dissolved nitrogen fraction, these results underline the importance of single compound analysis to determine SML structure, function, and its potential for a transfer of compounds into the atmosphere.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sub-micron marine aerosol particles (PM1) were collected over the period 22 June–21 July 2011 during the RV MARIA S. MERIAN cruise MSM 18/3, which travelled from the Cape Verdean island of São Vicente to Gabon, in the process crossing the tropical Atlantic Ocean with its equatorial upwelling regime. According to air mass origin and the chemical composition of the sampled aerosol particles, three main regimes could be established. Aerosol particles in the first part of the cruise were mainly of marine origin (Region I). In the second part of the cruise, marine influences mixed with increasing influence from biomass burning (Region II). In the final part of the cruise, which approached the African mainland, the biomass burning influence became dominant (Region III). Generally, aerosol particles were dominated by sulfate (caverage = 2.0 μg m−3) and ammonium ions (caverage = 0.7 μg m−3), which were well-correlated and increased slightly over the duration of the cruise. High concentrations of water-insoluble organic carbon (WISOC; caverage = 0.4 μg m−3) were found, most likely as a result of the high oceanic productivity in this region. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations increased from 0.26 μg m−3 in Region I to 2.3 μg m−3 in Region III, most likely as a result of biomass burning influences. The major organic aerosol constituents were oxalic acid, methanesulfonic acid (MSA), and aliphatic amines. MSA concentrations were quite constant during the cruise (caverage = 42 ng m−3). Aliphatic amines were most abundant in Region I, with concentrations of ~ 20 ng m−3. Oxalic acid showed the opposite trend, with average concentrations of 12 ng m−3 in Region I and 158 ng m−3 in Region III. The α-dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal and methylglyoxal were detected in the aerosol particles in the low ng m−3 range and were closely correlated with oxalic acid. MSA and aliphatic amines arise from biogenic marine sources, whereas oxalic acid and the α-dicarbonyl compounds were attributed to biomass burning. Concentrations of n-alkanes increased from 0.8 to 4.7 ng m−3 over the duration of the cruise. PAHs and hopanes were abundant only in Region III (caverage of PAHs = 0.13 ng m−3; caverage of hopanes = 0.19 ng m−3). Levoglucosan was identified in several samples obtained in Region III, with caverage = 1.9 ng m−3, which points to (aged) biomass burning influences. The organic compounds quantified in this study could explain 8.3 % of WSOC in Regions I, where aliphatic amines and MSA dominated, 3.7 % of WSOC in Region II and 2.5 % of WSOC in Region III, where oxalic acid dominated.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-12-19
    Description: The export of organic matter from ocean to atmosphere represents a substantial carbon flux in the Earth system, yet the impact of environmental drivers on this transfer is not fully understood. This work presents dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) concentrations, their enrichment factors in the sea surface microlayer (SML), and equivalent measurements in marine aerosol particles across the Atlantic Ocean. DOC concentrations averaged 161 ± 139 μmol L–1 (n = 78) in bulk seawater and 225 ± 175 μmol L–1 (n = 79) in the SML; POC concentrations averaged 13 ± 11 μmol L–1 (n = 80) and 17 ± 10 μmol L–1 (n = 80), respectively. High DOC and POC enrichment factors were observed when samples had low concentrations, and lower enrichments when concentrations were high. The impacts of wind speed and chlorophyll-a levels on concentrations and enrichment of DOC and POC in seawater were insignificant. In ambient submicron marine aerosol particles the concentration of water-soluble organic carbon was approximately 0.2 μg m–3. Water-insoluble organic carbon concentrations varied between 0.01 and 0.9 μg m–3, with highest concentrations observed when chlorophyll-a concentrations were high. Concerted measurements of bulk seawater, the SML and aerosol particles enabled calculation of enrichment factors of organic carbon in submicron marine ambient aerosols, which ranged from 103 to 104 during periods of low chlorophyll-a concentrations and up to 105 when chlorophyll-a levels were high. The results suggest that elevated local biological activity enhances the enrichment of marine-sourced organic carbon on aerosol particles. However, implementation of the results in source functions based on wind speed and chlorophyll-a concentrations underestimated the organic fraction at low biological activity by about 30%. There may be additional atmospheric and oceanic parameters to consider for accurately predicting organic fractions on aerosol particles.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-06-17
    Description: Clouds play an important role in Arctic amplification. This term represents the recently observed enhanced warming of the Arctic relative to the global increase of near-surface air temperature. However, there are still important knowledge gaps regarding the interplay between Arctic clouds and aerosol particles, and surface properties, as well as turbulent and radiative fluxes that inhibit accurate model simulations of clouds in the Arctic climate system. In an attempt to resolve this so-called Arctic cloud puzzle, two comprehensive and closely coordinated field studies were conducted: the Arctic Cloud Observations Using Airborne Measurements during Polar Day (ACLOUD) aircraft campaign and the Physical Feedbacks of Arctic Boundary Layer, Sea Ice, Cloud and Aerosol (PASCAL) ice breaker expedition. Both observational studies were performed in the framework of the German Arctic Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and Surface Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3 project. They took place in the vicinity of Svalbard, Norway, in May and June 2017. ACLOUD and PASCAL explored four pieces of the Arctic cloud puzzle: cloud properties, aerosol impact on clouds, atmospheric radiation, and turbulent dynamical processes. The two instrumented Polar 5 and Polar 6 aircraft; the icebreaker Research Vessel (R/V) Polarstern; an ice floe camp including an instrumented tethered balloon; and the permanent ground-based measurement station at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, were employed to observe Arctic low- and mid-level mixed-phase clouds and to investigate related atmospheric and surface processes. The Polar 5 aircraft served as a remote sensing observatory examining the clouds from above by downward-looking sensors; the Polar 6 aircraft operated as a flying in situ measurement laboratory sampling inside and below the clouds. Most of the collocated Polar 5/6 flights were conducted either above the R/V Polarstern or over the Ny-Ålesund station, both of which monitored the clouds from below using similar but upward-looking remote sensing techniques as the Polar 5 aircraft. Several of the flights were carried out underneath collocated satellite tracks. The paper motivates the scientific objectives of the ACLOUD/PASCAL observations and describes the measured quantities, retrieved parameters, and the applied complementary instrumentation. Furthermore, it discusses selected measurement results and poses critical research questions to be answered in future papers analyzing the data from the two field campaigns.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Despite the huge extent of the ocean's surface, until now relatively little attention has been paid to the sea surface microlayer (SML) as the ultimate interface where heat, momentum and mass exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere takes place. Via the SML, large-scale environmental changes in the ocean such as warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and eutrophication potentially influence cloud formation, precipitation, and the global radiation balance. Due to the deep connectivity between biological, chemical, and physical processes, studies of the SML may reveal multiple sensitivities to global and regional changes. Understanding the processes at the ocean's surface, in particular involving the SML as an important and determinant interface, could therefore provide an essential contribution to the reduction of uncertainties regarding ocean-climate feedbacks. This review identifies gaps in our current knowledge of the SML and highlights a need to develop a holistic and mechanistic understanding of the diverse biological, chemical, and physical processes occurring at the ocean-atmosphere interface. We advocate the development of strong interdisciplinary expertise and collaboration in order to bridge between ocean and atmospheric sciences. Although this will pose significant methodological challenges, such an initiative would represent a new role model for interdisciplinary research in Earth System sciences.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-10-29
    Description: MILAN was a multidisciplinary, international study examining how the diel variability of sea-surface microlayer biogeochemical properties potentially impacts ocean-atmosphere interaction, in order to improve our understanding of this globally important process. The sea-surface microlayer (SML) at the air-sea interface is 〈 1 mm deep but it is physically, chemically and biologically distinct from the underlying water and the atmosphere above. Wind-driven turbulence and solar radiation are important drivers of SML physical and biogeochemical properties. Given that the SML is involved in all ocean-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy, its response to solar radiation, especially in relation to how it regulates the air-sea exchange of climate-relevant gases and aerosols, is surprisingly poorly characterised. MILAN (sea-surface MIcroLAyer at Night) was an international, multidisciplinary campaign designed to specifically address this issue. In spring 2017, we deployed diverse sampling platforms (research vessels, radio-controlled catamaran, free-drifting buoy) to study full diel cycles in the coastal North Sea SML and in underlying water, and installed a land-based aerosol sampler. We also carried out concurrent ex situ experiments using several microsensors, a laboratory gas exchange tank, a solar simulator, and a sea spray simulation chamber. In this paper we outline the diversity of approaches employed and some initial results obtained during MILAN. Our observations of diel SML variability, e.g. the influence of changing solar radiation on the quantity and quality of organic material, and diel changes in wind intensity primarily forcing air-sea CO2 exchange, underline the value and the need of multidisciplinary campaigns for integrating SML complexity into the context of air-sea interaction.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 10
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; Müller, Konrad; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Poulain, Laurent; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Herrmann, Hartmut (2014): Long-term chemical characterization of tropical and marine aerosols at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) from 2007 to 2011. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14(17), 8883-8904, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-8883-2014
    Publication Date: 2019-10-26
    Description: The first long-term aerosol sampling and chemical characterization results from measurements at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on the island of São Vicente are presented and are discussed with respect to air mass origin and seasonal trends. In total 671 samples were collected using a high-volume PM10 sampler on quartz fiber filters from January 2007 to December 2011. The samples were analyzed for their aerosol chemical composition, including their ionic and organic constituents. Back trajectory analyses showed that the aerosol at CVAO was strongly influenced by emissions from Europe and Africa, with the latter often responsible for high mineral dust loading. Sea salt and mineral dust dominated the aerosol mass and made up in total about 80% of the aerosol mass. The 5-year PM10 mean was 47.1 ± 55.5 µg/m**2, while the mineral dust and sea salt means were 27.9 ± 48.7 and 11.1 ± 5.5 µg/m**2, respectively. Non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate made up 62% of the total sulfate and originated from both long-range transport from Africa or Europe and marine sources. Strong seasonal variation was observed for the aerosol components. While nitrate showed no clear seasonal variation with an annual mean of 1.1 ± 0.6 µg/m**3, the aerosol mass, OC (organic carbon) and EC (elemental carbon), showed strong winter maxima due to strong influence of African air mass inflow. Additionally during summer, elevated concentrations of OM were observed originating from marine emissions. A summer maximum was observed for non-sea-salt sulfate and was connected to periods when air mass inflow was predominantly of marine origin, indicating that marine biogenic emissions were a significant source. Ammonium showed a distinct maximum in spring and coincided with ocean surface water chlorophyll a concentrations. Good correlations were also observed between nss-sulfate and oxalate during the summer and winter seasons, indicating a likely photochemical in-cloud processing of the marine and anthropogenic precursors of these species. High temporal variability was observed in both chloride and bromide depletion, differing significantly within the seasons, air mass history and Saharan dust concentration. Chloride (bromide) depletion varied from 8.8 ± 8.5% (62 ± 42%) in Saharan-dust-dominated air mass to 30 ± 12% (87 ± 11%) in polluted Europe air masses. During summer, bromide depletion often reached 100% in marine as well as in polluted continental samples. In addition to the influence of the aerosol acidic components, photochemistry was one of the main drivers of halogenide depletion during the summer; while during dust events, displacement reaction with nitric acid was found to be the dominant mechanism. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis identified three major aerosol sources: sea salt, aged sea salt and long-range transport. The ionic budget was dominated by the first two of these factors, while the long-range transport factor could only account for about 14% of the total observed ionic mass.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 12003 data points
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